Xu Hướng 2/2023 # Reading Challenge 1 2Nd – Answer Key / Reading # Top 7 View | Acevn.edu.vn

Xu Hướng 2/2023 # Reading Challenge 1 2Nd – Answer Key / Reading # Top 7 View

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1 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Unit 1 1. I would like to stay in the Ice Hotel. I think it is The Ice Hotel a unique place. 2. The most unusual place that I have heard of Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) is this Ice Hotel. 1. It is winter in the photo. I know that because I 3. An interesting place I have visited is Bangkok can see a lot of ice. in Thailand. I saw many amazing palaces and 2. I think this hotel must be in a cold place. temples there. 3. I think this hotel is special because it is made of ice. Grammar Are you into skiing? Vocabulary Preview Of course, all of these hotels are made of ice. 1. c 2. f 3. b 4. e 5. d 6. a Vocabulary and Idiom Review Reading Comprehension 1. b 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. b 1. b 2. d 3. c 4. b 5. b 6. a 7. d 8. b 9. c 10. b Idiomatic Expressions 1. check in 2. am into 3. made (out) of Summary 1. unique 2. freezing 3. Surprisingly 4. fantastic 5. cozy Listening 1. d 2. d 3. b Discussion ( answers will vary). 1 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 3.

2 The first sandwich was made with bread and Unit 2 meat. Food Firsts Discussion ( answers will vary). Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) 1. My favorite foods from other countries are 1. My favorite food is Cajun chicken salad. Tom Yang soup and fried noodles. Tom Yang 2. The most unusual food I have eaten is fried soup is from Thailand and fried noodles are from insects. Hong Kong. 3. I can cook many kinds of dishes, from 2. Some traditional foods from Canada are spaghetti to steak. barbequed salmon and steak. 3. One untrue story people believe is that Vocabulary Preview spaghetti was first made in Italy. In fact, noodles 1. f 2. c 3. b 4. a 5. e 6. d were first made in China. Reading Comprehension Grammar 1. d 2. b 3. a 4. d 5. b Cooks of wealthy English families during the time of Richard I were making curry dishes. Idiomatic Expressions The Persians were eating round, flat bread with 1. Dig in cheese in the 500s. 2. find out 3. catching on Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. d 2. d 3.

3 C 4. a 5. d Summary 6. d 7. b 8. a 9. c 10. b 1. 1377 2. Wealthy 3. Created 4. 500s 5. Introduced 6. 1891. Listening 1. Mike found Janet surfing the Internet. 2. Lord Montagu was the Earl of Sandwich. 2 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. Using the letters of the alphabet, the WMO. makes a list of names that includes both male and female names. Unit 3 2. The lists are made of names that start with Hurricane Who? different letters, but the lists do not include names beginning with the letters Q, U, X, Y, and Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Z. 1. A hurricane is a big storm with high winds and 3. Asian countries name hurricanes using a list lots of rain. of words that includes flowers, animals, trees, 2. I think hurricanes usually occur along the and other similar things. coasts of continents. They always start out in the ocean. Listening 3. We usually get hurricanes in my country in the 1. [ ] True [ ] False spring and in the fall. There may be five or six 2. [ ] True [ ] False each season.

4 3. [ ] True [ ] False Vocabulary Preview Discussion ( answers will vary). 1. d 2. b 3. c 4. e 5. a 6. f 1. I think non-human names are better for cyclones. It’s more interesting that way. Reading Comprehension 2. I have never experienced a tropical cyclone. 1. c 2. c 3. c 4. d 5. b 3. Winter is the worst season in my country, and summer is the best season. Idiomatic Expressions 1. make up Grammar 2. keeps up with Tropical cyclones are called typhoons in Asia 3. keep an eye out for and hurricanes in North and South America. The World Meteorological Organization decides Summary what names will be used. (Possible answers ). Vocabulary and Idiom Review 3 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. a 5. c 3. produces 4. shut down 6. c 7. a 8. b 9. a 10. b 5. butterflies Listening 1. c 2. b 3. d Unit 4 Discussion ( answers will vary). How Did Those Get in There? 1. The last time I was nervous was during a piano performance for a contest. My body Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) reacted to my nervousness by making me go to 1.

5 When I have to speak in front of my class, I the bathroom a lot before my performance. get very nervous. 2. To reduce stress, I read comic books or listen 2. My legs are affected by this feeling. They to music. become very weak and shaky. 3. Any situation where I have to do something or 3. Related to this feeling, I think of rabbits say something in front of a lot of people gives because they always seem nervous to me. me butterflies in my stomach. Vocabulary Preview Grammar 1. f 2. a 3. b 4. e 5. d 6. c Cortisol speeds up the way the stomach works, which makes these people feel sick. Reading Comprehension Stepping out onto the stage will also help those 1. c 2. c 3. b 4. c 5. a butterflies fly away. Idiomatic Expressions Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. get rid of 1. d 2. c 3. a 4. a 5. b 2. play a role in 6. c 7. b 8. b 9. c 10. a 3. shut down Summary 1. respond 2. normal 4 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Summary 1. position 2. wake up 3. still 4. antennae 5. respond to 6. loud Listening 1.

6 An interesting thing about the New Zealand weta is that it freezes every night. Unit 5 2. The man learned that the New Zealand weta A Bug’s Sleep is related to crickets. 3. The man found out about the New Zealand Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) weta in his biology class. 1. I don’t think insects sleep. They don’t have a big enough brain to need sleep. Discussion ( answers will vary). 2. Maybe an insect is very still and quiet if it 1. I think we need sleep to rest our brains and sleeps. bodies. 3. I usually need 7-8 hours of sleep. If I don’t get 2. One experiment could be to measure enough sleep, I get angry very easily. changes in the brain activity of insects. If their brain activity changes when they are still, maybe Vocabulary Preview they are sleeping. 1. a 2. c 3. d 4. e 5. f 6. b 3. I know that insects have no bones or lungs. Reading Comprehension Grammar 1. c 2. d 3. c 4. c 5. a Additionally, they don’t wake up easily when hearing noises or seeing light. Idiomatic Expressions However, they start to move around when louder 1.

7 Come out of noised are made. 2. moves around 3. For example Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. c 2. a 3. b 4. d 5. c 5 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 6. b 7. b 8. b 9. a 10. b Summary (Possible answers ). 1. Tiger won the World Golf Championships before he turned 25, setting the record as the youngest player to ever win all four championships. 2. Tiger wants to help others who can’t play golf because he was helped by so many people as a child. Unit 6 3. Tiger created the Tiger Woods Foundation so Tiger’s Tale that golf would be open to everyone. Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Listening 1. Jack Nicklaus is a famous golfer. 1. [ ] True [ ] False 2. The special thing about Tiger Woods is that 2. [ ] True [ ] False he is very young, but successful. 3. [ ] True [ ] False 3. A role model is someone who I want to act like. Discussion ( answers will vary). 1. I don’t like to play golf. I think it is a little Vocabulary Preview boring. 1. a 2. b 3. e 4. c 5. f 6. d 2. I enjoy playing badminton or basketball.

8 3. If I had lots of money, I would give some to Reading Comprehension my family, give some to charity, and put the rest 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. c 5. c in the bank. Idiomatic Expressions Grammar 1. lend, a hand Tiger Woods started playing golf professionally 2. holds the record for in 1996. 3. looks up to Because many people helped Tiger as a child, he wants to lend a hand to others now. 6 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. on a daily basis Vocabulary and Idiom Review 2. agree with 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. c 3. set up 6. d 7. d 8. b 9. b 10. a Summary 1. set up 2. reports 3. balanced 4. responsibility 5. agrees with Listening Unit 7 1. b 2. c 3. d Not the Normal News Discussion ( answers will vary). Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) 1. I usually read news reports online. 1. One thing in the news over the past few days 2. My favorite news magazine is News Today was the death of a famous singer in my country. because its articles are easy to read. 2. The information in this article was sad and a 3.

9 I know about a television program that only little scary because the singer died from a reports entertaining stories, mostly about the medical accident. lives of movie stars. 3. One funny story that I heard recently was about some research related to pets and how Grammar pets can control their owners. Newspapers always seem to report about the bad things happening in society. Vocabulary Preview HappyNews gets fan mail from its readers on a 1. f 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. b daily basis. Reading Comprehension Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. a 1. a 2. b 3. d 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. c 9. b 10. b Idiomatic Expressions 7 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Summary 1. finishes 2. start up 3. perfect 4. machine 5. give up 6. successfully Listening 1. The speaker says that the older brother flew in the Wright Flyer. 2. The distance that the Wright Flyer went was 51 meters. Unit 8 3. That is about the distance from the front of the The Wright Way to Fly plane to the back. Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Discussion ( answers will vary).

10 1. I think that the Wright brothers made the first 1. Thomas Edison is also a famous inventor. airplane. They are famous because they flew. 2. My father enjoys making things. He likes to 2. The Wright brothers were from the US. make furniture. 3. I think they lived about 100 years ago. 3. I last flew in an airplane last summer. I visited my family in New Zealand. Vocabulary Preview 1. f 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. a Grammar Instead of sitting in class and Reading , they Reading Comprehension wanted to work and make things, like machines. 1. c 2. d 3. c 4. d 5. b Then the brothers decided to make their glider into a flying machine. Idiomatic Expressions 1. give up Vocabulary and Idiom Review 2. break down 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. a 5. a 3. start up 6. a 7. c 8. c 9. a 10. c 8 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. got around 2. posing as 3. in the hands of Summary (Possible answers ). 1. Mitnick, who was sent to prison, decided to use his skills to set up a computer security firm. 2. Mitnick believes the biggest danger to security these days is the people using the programs.

Ielts Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below.

The Lumière Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1985. Before the eyes of the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and moved across a flat-screen.

So ordinary and routine has this become to us that it takes a determined leap of imagination to grasp the impact of those first moving images. But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.

Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of films became familiar, the magic was accepted- but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audience and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence of time, while time in a novel passed at the whim of the reader. But in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.

One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For cinema makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived. Overwhelmingly, the lives recorded at least in film fiction- have been American. From the earliest days of the industry, Hollywood has dominated the world film market. American imagery-the cars, the cities, the cowboys became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.

And, thanks to film, future generations will know the 20-th century more intimately than any other period. We can only imagine what life was like in the 14th century or in classical Rome. But the life of the modern world has been recorded on film in massive encyclopedic detail. We shall be known better than any preceding generations.

The ‘star’ was another natural consequence of cinema. The cinema star was effectively born in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than we do ourselves. The star as a magnified human self is one of cinema’s most strange and enduring legacies.

Cinema has also given a new lease of life to the idea of the story. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground attraction.

Cinema might, for example, have become primarily a documentary form. Or it might have developed like television -as a strange noisy transfer of music, information and narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories- early producers doubted the ability of audiences to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in 1912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled upon the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.

Questions 1-5

Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

1 the location of the first cinema 2 how cinema come to focus on stories 3 the speed with which cinema has changed 4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in films

Questions 6-9

Do the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I? In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:

YES NO NOT GIVEN

if the statement agrees with the views of the writer if the statement contradicts with the views of the writer if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema. 7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode. 8 Cinema presents a bias0d view of other countries. 9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

And it has all happened so quickly. Almost unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the audience screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and, perhaps, suddenly aware that the world could never be the same again -that, maybe, it could be better, brighter, more astonishing, more real than reality.Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.1 the location of the first cinema2 how cinema come to focus on stories3 the speed with which cinema has changed4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in filmsDo the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I?In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:if the statement agrees with the views of the writerif the statement contradicts with the views of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode.8 Cinema presents a bias0d view of other countries.9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

Questions I0-13

Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrate

The simplicity of early films B the impact of early films C how short early films were Dhow imaginative early films were

11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at it

A aims to impress its audience  B tells stories better than books C illustrates t11e passing of t me D describes familiar events

12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11at Ait would always tell toes Bit s11ould be used in fairgrounds Cits audiences were unappreciative Dits future was uncertain

13 what is the best title for the passage?

A The rise of the cinema star B Cinema and novels compared C The dominant of Hollywood D The power of the big screen

Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

Motivating Employees under Adverse ConditionTHE CHALLENGE

It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organization than a declining one. When organizations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay raises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organization create Slings of optimism. Management is able to ta use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose- those with me the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.

Morale also surfers during the decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumors and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly divided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.

KEY POINT ONE

There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there are independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety, and responsibility.

KEY POINT TWO

KEY POINT THREE

Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management’s perceptions of the employee’s ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.

KEY POINT FOUR

Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope, and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision-making.

KEY POINT FIVE

KEY POINT SIX

Questions 14-18

Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points. Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.

i Ensure the reward system is fair ii Match rewords lo individuals iii Ensure targets ore realistically iv Link rewords to achievement v Encourage managers to take more responsibility vi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedback viii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs

14 Koy Point Two 15 Koy Point Three 16 Kay Point FoLir 17 Key Point Five 18 Key Point Six

Questions 19-24

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:

YES NO NOT GIVEN

if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writer if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilled employees. 20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business. 21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork. 22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting. 23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees. 24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

Questions 25-27

Look at the following groups of workers (Question2S-27) and the list of descriptions below.

Match ec1chgroup with the correct description, A -E Write the correct letter, A-Ein boxes 25-27 on your answer sheet

25 high achievers

26 clerical workers

27 product on workers

List of descriptions

A They judge promotion to bo important

B They have less need for external goats

C They think that the quality of their work is important 

D They resist goals which are imposed

E Thay have limited job options

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill

In government laboratories and elsewhere, scientists are seeking a drug able to prolong

life and youthful vigor. Studies of caloric restriction are showing the way

As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging- the build-up of molecular and cellular damage that increases vulnerability to infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. Those findings suggest that caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.

Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping from 2,500 calories a day to 1, 750. Few mortals could stick to chat harsh a regimen, especially for years on end. But what if someone could create a pill that mimicked the physiological effects of eating less without actually forcing people to eat less? Could such a ‘caloric-restriction mimetic’, as we call it, enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and cancer) until very lace in life? Scientists first posed this question in the mid-1990s, after researchers came upon a chemical agent that in rodents seemed to reproduce many of caloric restriction’s benefits. No compound that would safely achieve the same feat in people has been found yet, but the search has been informative and has fanned the hope that caloric-restriction (CR) mimetics can indeed be developed eventually.

The benefits of caloric restriction

The hunt for CR mimetics grew out of a desire to better understand caloric restriction’s many effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the practice more than 60 years ago, when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats and also had a reduced incidence of conditions that become increasingly common in old age. What is more, some of the treated animals survived longer than the oldest-living animals in the control group, which means that the maximum lifespan (the oldest attainable age), not merely the normal lifespan, increased. Various interventions, such as infection-fighting drugs, can increase a population’s average survival time, but only approaches chat slowly the body’s rate of aging will increase the maximum lifespan.

The rat findings have been replicated many times and extended to creatures ranging from yeast to fruit flies, worms, fish, spiders, mice, and hamsters. Until fairly recently, the studies were limited short-lived creatures genetically distant from humans. But caloric-restriction projects underway in two species more closely related to humans- rhesus and squirrel monkeys- have scientists optimistic that CR mimetics could help people.

calorie: a measure of the energy value of food.

The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals that eat normally. caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones that tend to fall with age.

The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels(signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease) and they have more normal blood glucose levels( pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes, which is marked by unusually high blood glucose levels). Further, it has recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-restricted diets for an extended time( nearly 15 years) have a less chronic disease. They and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespans in monkeys. Unlike the multitude of elixirs being touted as the latest anti-aging cure, CR mimetics would alter fundamental processes that underlie aging. We aim to develop compounds that fool cells into activating maintenance and repair.

How a prototype caloric-restriction mimetic works

The best-studied candidate for a caloric-restriction mimetic, 2DG (2-deoxy-D-glucose), works by interfering with the way cells process glucose, it has proved toxic at some doses in animals and so cannot be used in humans. But it has demonstrated that chemicals can replicate the effects of caloric restriction; the trick is finding the right one.

Cells use glucose from food to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the molecule that powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake, caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases ATP generation. When 2DG is administered to animals that eat normally, glucose reaches cells in abundance but the drug prevents most of it from being processed and thus reduces ATP synthesis. Researchers have proposed several explanations for why interruption of glucose processing and ATP production might retard aging. One possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery’s emission of free radicals, which are thought to contribute to aging and t such age-related diseases as cancer by damaging cells. Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage. Another hypothesis suggests that decreased processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce( even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes preservation of the organism over such ‘luxuries’ as growth and reproduction.

Questions 28-32

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? 

Inboxes 28-32  on your answer sheet, write

YES

NO

NOT GIVEN

if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

if the statement contradicts the clo1ms of the writer

if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

28 Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.

29 There is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.  

30 Not many people are likely to find a caloric-restricted diet attractive.

31Diet-related diseases ore is common in older people.

32Inexperiments.rots who ote what they wonted led shorter lives than rots on a low-calorie diet

Questions 33-37

Classify the following descriptions os relating to

A colone-restricted n1onkeys

B controls on keys

C neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys

33 Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic.

34 Monkeys experienced more chronic disease.

35 Monkeys l1ove been shown to experience o longer than overage life span. 

36 Monkeys enjoyed o reduced chance of heart disease.

37 Monkeys produced greater quantities of insulin.

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

1. A

2. I

3. J

4. E

5. G

6. yes

7. not given

8. not given

9. no

10. B

11. C

12. D

13. D

Question 1-5: 

1. A (the whole para: ―The Lumiere Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at l4 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1895. Before the eyes oi the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and 

moved across a flat screen‖) 

2. I (line 5-14: ―narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in I912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.‖) 

3. J (line 2-9: ―unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and perhaps, aware that the world never same again — that, maybe, it could be better brighter more astonishing, more real than reality‖) 

4. E (first 6 lines: ―One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For the cinema it makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked lived‖) 

5. G (lines 3-8: ―bon in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than do ourselves‖) 

Question 6-9: 

6. YES (para D, line 1-9: ―Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of the film became familiar, the magic was accepted – but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audiences and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which 

cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events‖) 

7. NOT GIVEN 

8. NOT GIVEN 

9. NO (para I, line 7-11: ―Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces 

doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel.‖) 

Question 10-13: 

10. B (para C, line 9-17: ―the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ‘Panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when Cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture. Pictures were still, only reality move; this must, therefore, be a reality. In their confusion, they 

feared that a real train about to crush them.‖) 

11. C (para D, line 7-13: ―world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence oi time, while time in a novel passed at the whim oi the reader. But in 

cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.‖) 

12. D (para H, last 4 lines: ―movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn 

off, the cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground 

attraction‖) 

13. D 

Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

14. 7

15. 3

16. 2

17. 4

18. 1

19. no

20. not given

21. no

22. yes

23. not given

24. yes

25. B

26. C

27. A

Question 14-18: 

14. vii (KEY POINT TWO, first 2 lines: ―The literature in goal-setting theory suggests that 

how well they are doing in those goals‖) 

15. iii (KEY POINT THREE, last 3 lines: ―Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees 

feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability oi doing the job and must regard the appraisal 

the process as valid‖) 

16. ii (KEY POINT FOUR, first 3 lines: ―Since employees have different needs, what acts as 

a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge oi each 

employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control.‖) 

17. iv (KEY POINT FIVE, first 2 lines: ―Managers need to make rewards contingent on 

performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other 

factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and‖) 

18. i (KEY POINT SIX, first 2 lines: ―The way rewards are distributed should be transparent 

so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs 

given. On a simplistic level‖) 

Question 19-24:

19. NO (THE CHALLENGE, part 1, last 4 lines: ―employees. When an organization is 

shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose – those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are 

limited‖) 

20. NOT GIVEN 

21. NO (KEY POINT ONE, line 3-6: ―autonomous unit within a larger business, high 

achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need or power and a low need for affiliation should be selected Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that 

are inconsistent with their needs‖) 

22. YES (KEY POINT TWO, last 3 lines: ―the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If 

participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the 

participation process as manipulative and l be negatively affected by it.‖) 

23. NOT GIVEN 

24. YES (KEY POINT FIVE, line 4-5: ―goals. Consistent with maximizing the impact oi 

rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the 

the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating‖) 

Question 25-27: 

25. B (KEY POINT TWO, line 3-4: ―those with high achievement needs, typically a minority 

in any organization, the existence of external goals is less important because high 

achievers are already internally motivated.‖) 

26. C (KEY POINT SIX, line 7-9: ―production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and 

outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

workers’ list‖) 

27. A (KEY POINT SIX, line 9-11: ―their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

workers’ list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were 

quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks‖) 

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

28. no

29. yes

30. yes

31. not given 

32. yes

33. A

34. B

35. C

36. A

37. B

38. glucose

39. free radicals

40. preservation

Question 28-32: 

28. NO (para 1, first 2 lines: ―As researchers on aging noted recently. no treatment on the 

market today has been proved to slow human aging – the build-up of molecular and 

cellular damage that increases vulnerability to‖) 

29. YES (para 1, last 4 lines: ―infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption 

of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. These findings suggest that 

the caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.‖) 

30. YES (para 2, first 2 lines: ―Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably 

have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping 

2.500 calories a day to 1,750.‖) 

31. NOT GIVEN 

32. YES (para 3, line 2-3: ―effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the 

practice more than 60 years ago. when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived 

longer on average than free-feeding rats.‖) 

Question33-37:

33. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of 

risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which is 

marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

34. B (para 5, line 5-6: ―recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-

diets for an extended time (nearly 15 years) have less chronic disease‖) 

35. C 

36. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators 

risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure 

triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they 

more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which 

marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

37. B (para 4: ―The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals 

eat normally, caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones 

tend to fall with age.‖) 

Question 38-40:

38. ‘glucose’ (para 7, line 2-3: ―powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake 

caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases 

generation.‖) 

39. ‘free radicals’ (para 7,line 7-8: ―One possibility relates to the ATP-making 

emission of free radicals, which are thought to continue to aging and to such age-

diseases as cancer by damaging cells‖) 

40. “preservation’ (para 7, last 3 lines: ―damage. Another hypothesis suggests that 

processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce (even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes preservation of 

organism over such ‗luxuries’ as growth and reproduction‖) 

Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D.Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrateThe simplicity of early filmsB the impact of early filmsC how short early films wereDhow imaginative early films were11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at itA aims to impress its audienceB tells stories better than booksC illustrates t11e passing of t meD describes familiar events12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11atAit would always tell toesBit s11ould be used in fairgroundsCits audiences were unappreciativeDits future was uncertain13 what is the best title for the passage?A The rise of the cinema starB Cinema and novels comparedC The dominant of HollywoodD The power of the big screenQuestions 14-18Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points.Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below.Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.i Ensure the reward system is fairii Match rewords lo individualsiii Ensure targets ore realisticallyiv Link rewords to achievementv Encourage managers to take more responsibilityvi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedbackviii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs14 Koy Point Two15 Koy Point Three16 Kay Point FoLir17 Key Point Five18 Key Point SixDo the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writerif the statement contradicts the claims of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilledemployees.20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business.21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork.22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

Ielts Academic Reading Free Samples. Sample 1.2

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14–26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Life lessons from villains, crooks and gangsters

(A) A notorious Mexican drug baron’s audacious escape from prison in July doesn’t, at first, appear to have much to teach corporate boards. But some in the business world suggest otherwise. Beyond the morally reprehensible side of criminals’ work, some business gurus say organised crime syndicates, computer hackers, pirates and others operating outside the law could teach legitimate corporations a thing or two about how to hustle and respond to rapid change.

(C) Joaquin Guzman, the head of the Mexican Sinaloa drug cartel, for instance, slipped out of his prison cell through a tiny hole in his shower that led to a mile-long tunnel fitted with lights and ventilation. Making a break for it required creative thinking, long-term planning and perseverance – essential skills similar to those needed to achieve success in big business.

(E) By contrast, many legitimate businesses fail because they hesitate to adapt quickly to changing market winds. One high-profile example is movie and game rental company Blockbuster, which didn’t keep up with the market and lost business to mail order video rentals and streaming technologies. The brand has all but faded from view. Liddell argues the difference between the two groups is that criminal organisations often have improvisation encoded into their daily behaviour, while larger companies think of innovation as a set process. “This is a leadership challenge,” said Liddell. “How well companies innovate and organise is a reflection of leadership.”

Left-field thinking

(F) Cash-strapped start-ups also use unorthodox strategies to problem solve and build their businesses up from scratch. This creativity and innovation is often borne out of necessity, such as tight budgets. Both criminals and start-up founders “question authority, act outside the system and see new and clever ways of doing things,” said Goodman. “Either they become Elon Musk or El Chapo.” And, some entrepreneurs aren’t even afraid to operate in legal grey areas in their effort to disrupt the marketplace. The co-founders of music streaming service Napster, for example, knowingly broke music copyright rules with their first online file sharing service, but their technology paved the way for legal innovation as regulators caught up.

(G) Goodman and others believe thinking hard about problem solving before worrying about restrictions could prevent established companies falling victim to rivals less constrained by tradition. In their book The Misfit Economy, Alexa Clay and Kyra Maya Phillips examine how individuals can apply that mindset to become more innovative and entrepreneurial within corporate structures. They studied not just violent criminals like Somali pirates, but others who break the rules in order to find creative solutions to their business problems, such as people living in the slums of Mumbai or computer hackers. They picked out five common traits among this group: the ability to hustle, pivot, provoke, hack and copycat.

(H) Clay gives a Saudi entrepreneur named Walid Abdul-Wahab as a prime example. Abdul-Wahab worked with Amish farmers to bring camel milk to American consumers even before US regulators approved it. Through perseverance, he eventually found a network of Amish camel milk farmers and started selling the product via social media. Now his company, Desert Farms, sells to giant mainstream retailers like Whole Foods Market. Those on the fringe don’t always have the option of traditional, corporate jobs and that forces them to think more creatively about how to make a living, Clay said. They must develop grit and resilience in order to last outside the cushy confines of cubicle life. “In many cases scarcity is the mother of invention,” Clay said.

Cam 12, Test 5, Reading Pas 2

Collecting must be one of the most varied of human activities, and it’s one that many of us psychologists find fascinating.

Many forms of collecting have been dignified with a technical name: an archtophilist collects teddy bears, a philatelist collects postage stamps, and a deltiologist collects postcards. Amassing hundreds or even thousands of postcards, chocolate wrappers or whatever, takes time, energy and money that could surely to much more productive use. And yet there are millions of collectors around the world. Why do they do it?

There are the people who collect because they want to make money – this could be called an instrumental reason for collecting; that is, collecting as a means to an end. They’ll look for, say, antiques that they can buy cheaply and expect to be able to sell at a profit. But there may well be a psychological element, too – buying cheap and selling dear can give the collector a sense of triumph. And as selling online is so easy, more and more people are joining in.

Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless. There is a danger, though, that if the individual is ever lucky enough to find what they’re looking for, rather than celebrating their success, they may feel empty, now that the goal that drove them on has gone.

If you think about collecting postage stamps another potential reason for it – or, perhaps, a result of collecting – is its educational value. Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, and to the plants, animals, or famous people shown on their stamps. Similarly, in the 19th century, many collectors amassed fossils, animals and plants from around the globe, and their collections provided a vast amount of information about the natural world. Without those collections, our understanding would be greatly inferior to what it is.

In the past – and nowadays, too, though to a lesser extent – a popular form of collecting, particularly among boys and men, was trainspotting. This might involve trying to see every locomotive of a particular type, using published data that identifies each one, and ticking off each engine as it is seen. Trainspotters exchange information, these days often by mobile phone, so they can work out where to go to, to see a particular engine. As a by-product, many practitioners of the hobby become very knowledgeable about railway operations, or the technical specifications of different engine types.

Similarly, people who collect dolls may go beyond simply enlarging their collection, and develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls. Or collectors might be inspired to study how dolls reflect notions of what children like, or ought to like.

Not all collectors are interested in learning from their hobby, though, so what we might call a psychological reason for collecting is the need for a sense of control, perhaps as a way of dealing with insecurity. Stamp collectors, for instance, arrange their stamps in albums, usually very neatly, organising their collection according to certain commonplace principles-perhaps by country in alphabetical order, or grouping stamps by what they depict -people, birds, maps, and so on.

One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s individualism. Someone who decides to collect something as unexpected as dog collars, for instance, may be conveying their belief that they must be interesting themselves. And believe it or not, there is at least one dog collar museum in existence, and it grew out of a personal collection.

Of course, all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment. To non-collectors, it may appear an eccentric, if harmless, way of spending time, but potentially, collecting has a lot going for it.

Source: Cambridge Ielts Test 12

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 12 – TEST 5 – PASSAGE 2

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet.

14. The writer mentions collecting ……………………. as an example of collecting in order to make money.

15. Collectors may get a feeling of ……………………. from buying and selling items.

16. Collectors’ clubs provide opportunities to share ……………………. .

17. Collectors’ clubs offer ……………………. with people who have similar interests.

18. Collecting sometimes involves a life-long ……………………. for a special item.

19. Searching for something particular may prevent people from feeling their life is completely ……………………. .

20. Stamp collecting may be ……………………. because it provides facts about different countries.

21. ……………………. tends to be mostly a male hobby.

14. The writer mentions collecting ……………………. as an example of collecting in order to make money.

= Người viết đề cập việc sưu tầm ……………………. như một ví dụ của sưu tầm nhằm mục đích kiếm tiền.

Trong đoạn 2 của bài đọc ta thấy các của câu hỏi ” There are the people who collect because they want to make money – this could be called an instrumental reason for collecting; that is, collecting as a means to an end. They’ll look for, say, antiques that they can buy cheaply and expect to be able to sell at a profit.“

= “Có những người sưu tầm vì họ muốn kiếm tiền – điều này có thể được gọi là lý do công cụ cho việc sưu tầm; đó là, sưu tập như là một phương tiện cho một mục đích. Họ sẽ tìm kiếm, ví dụ, những đồ cổ mà họ có thể mua rẻ và mong muốn có thể bán với một mức lợi nhuận.”

15. Collectors may get a feeling of ……………………. from buying and selling items.

= Những người sưu tầm có thể một cảm giác của ……………………. từ việc mua và bán những vật phẩm.

Vẫn trong đoạn 2 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” But there may well be a psychological element, too – buying cheap and selling dear can give the collector a sense of triumph“

= “Nhưng cũng có thể là một yếu tố tâm lý – mua rẻ và bán lấy lãi có thể mang lại cho nhà sưu tập một cảm giác chiến thắng.”

16. Collectors’ clubs provide opportunities to share ……………………. .

= Các câu lạc bộ của những người sưu tầm cung cấp những cơ hội để chia sẻ ……………………. .

Trong đoạn 3 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” Many collectors collect to develop their social life, attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging information on items. This is a variant on joining a bridge club or a gym, and similarly brings them into contact with like-minded people.“

= “Nhiều nhà sưu tập thu thập để phát triển đời sống xã hội của họ, tham dự các cuộc hội họp của một nhóm các nhà sưu tầm và trao đổi thông tin về các vật phẩm. Đây là một biến thể trong việc tham gia một câu lạc bộ chơi bài bridge hay một phòng tập gym, và tương tự như vậy đưa họ đến việc tiếp xúc với những người có cùng sở thích. “

… attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging … information on items … . = Collectors’ clubs provide opportunities to share ……………………. .

… tham dự các cuộc hội họp của một nhóm các nhà sưu tầm và trao đổi … thông tin về các vật phẩm … . Các câu lạc bộ của những người sưu tầm cung cấp những cơ hội để chia sẻ ……………………. .

 group of collectors = collectors’ clubs exchanging = to share

Từ những dữ liệu trên ta thông tin trùng khớp để trả lời câu hỏi là information on items. Tuy nhiên theo đầu bài thì đáp án chỉ được ONE WORD ONLY. Do đó kết luận đáp án của câu 16 là information

17. Collectors’ clubs offer ……………………. with people who have similar interests.

= Các câu lạc bộ của những người sưu tầm tạo cơ hội ……………………. với những người mà có những mối quan tâm giống nhau.

Vẫn ở đoạn 3 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” Many collectors collect to develop their social life, attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging information on items. This is a variant on joining a bridge club or a gym, and similarly brings them into contact with like-minded people.“

= “Nhiều nhà sưu tập thu thập để phát triển đời sống xã hội của họ, tham dự các cuộc hội họp của một nhóm các nhà sưu tầm và trao đổi thông tin về các vật phẩm. Đây là một biến thể trong việc tham gia một câu lạc bộ chơi bài bridge hay một phòng tập gym, và tương tự như vậy đưa họ đến việc tiếp xúc với những người có cùng sở thích.”

18. Collecting sometimes involves a life-long ……………………. for a special item.

“Đầu đoạn 4 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this.

= “Một động cơ thúc đẩy khác cho việc sưu tầm là mong muốn tìm một thứ gì đó đặc biệt, hoặc một mẫu cụ thể của một vật phẩm được sưu tập, chẳng hạn như một bản ghi âm sớm hiếm có bởi một ca sĩ nào đó. Một số người có thể dành cả cuộc đời của họ trong một cuộc săn đuổi cho điều này.”

19. Searching for something particular may prevent people from feeling their life is completely ……………………. .

= Tìm kiếm cho thứ gì đó cụ thể có thể ngăn chặn con người khỏi cảm giác cuộc sống của họ là hoàn toàn ……………………. .

“Vẫn ở đoạn 4 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless. There is a danger, though, that if the individual is ever lucky enough to find what they’re looking for, rather than celebrating their success, they may feel empty, now that the goal that drove them on has gone.

= “Một động cơ thúc đẩy khác cho việc sưu tầm là mong muốn tìm một thứ gì đó đặc biệt, hoặc một mẫu cụ thể của một vật phẩm được sưu tập, chẳng hạn như một bản ghi âm sớm hiếm có bởi một ca sĩ nào đó. Một số người có thể dành cả cuộc đời của họ trong một cuộc săn đuổi cho điều này. Về mặt tâm lý, điều này có thể mang lại một mục đích cho một cuộc sống mà nếu không thì sẽ cảm thấy không có mục đích. Mặc dù, có một hiểm họa mà nếu cá nhân thực sự đủ may mắn để tìm thấy những gì họ đang tìm kiếm, thay vì ăn mừng cho sự thành công của họ, họ có thể cảm thấy trống rỗng, bây giờ mục tiêu mà đã thúc đẩy họ đã biến mất.”

20. Stamp collecting may be ……………………. because it provides facts about different countries.

= Việc sưu tầm tem có thể là ……………………. bởi vì nó cung cấp những sự thật về các quốc gia khác nhau.

“Trong đoạn 5 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

= “Nếu bạn nghĩ về việc thu thập tem bưu chính, một lý do tiềm năng khác cho điều này – hoặc, có lẽ, một kết quả của việc sưu tập – là giá trị giáo dục của nó. Sưu tầm tem mở cánh cửa sổ đến các quốc gia khác, và đến các loài thực vật, động vật hoặc những người nổi tiếng được trình bầy trên những con tem của họ.” If you think about collecting postage stamps another potential reason for it – or, perhaps, a result of collecting is – its educational value. Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, and to the plants, animals, or famous people shown on their stamps.

… collecting postage stamps another potential reason for it – or, perhaps, a result of collecting – is … its educational value … . Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, = Stamp collecting may be ……………………. because it provides facts about different countries.

… việc thu thập tem bưu chính, một lý do tiềm năng khác cho điều này – hoặc, có lẽ, một kết quả của việc sưu tập – là … giá trị giáo dục của nó … . Sưu tầm tem mở cánh cửa sổ đến các quốc gia khác, Việc sưu tầm tem có thể là ……………………. bởi vì nó cung cấp những sự thật về các quốc gia khác nhau.

 potential, perhaps = may be opens a window = provides facts other countries = different countries

Từ những dữ liệu trên ta thấy đáp án cho câu này chắc chắn nằm ở chỗ “it’s educational value”. Trong câu hỏi – sau từ ” may be” – yêu cầu một đáp án là tính từ hoặc danh từ, trong khi đó đầu bài yêu cầu ONE WORD ONLY, do đó tính từ “educational” là lựa chọn phù hợp nhất.

Từ những dữ liệu và phân tích trên, kết luận đáp án của câu 20 là educational

21. ……………………. tends to be mostly a male hobby.

= ……………………. hướng tới chủ yếu là một sở thích của đàn ông.

“Đầu đoạn 6 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

= “Trong quá khứ – và hiện tại nữa, mặc dù ở phạm vi nhỏ hơn – một hình thức sưu tập phổ biến, đặc biệt giữa các cậu bé và những người đàn ông trưởng thành, là xem và ghi chú con số của các động cơ tàu hỏa.” In the past – and nowadays, too, though to a lesser extent – a popular form of collecting, particularly among boys and men, was trainspotting.

Questions 22-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?

In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the informationFALSE if the statement contradicts the informationNOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

22. The number of people buying dolls has grown over the centuries.

23. Sixteenth century European dolls were normally made of wax and porcelain.

24. Arranging a stamp collection by the size of the stamps is less common than other methods.

25. Someone who collects unusual objects may want others to think he or she is also unusual.

26. Collecting gives a feeling that other hobbies are unlikely to inspire.

22. The number of people buying dolls has grown over the centuries.

= Số lượng người mua búp bê đã và đang phát triển qua các thế kỷ.

“Ở đoạn 7 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

= “Tương tự như vậy, những người sưu tầm búp bê có thể đi vượt quá việc chỉ đơn giản mở rộng bộ sưu tập của họ, và phát triển một sự hứng thú với cách mà búp bê được tạo ra, hoặc các vật liệu mà được sử dụng. Những thứ này đã và đang thay đổi qua nhiều thế kỷ từ gỗ thứ mà đã là tiêu chuẩn ở châu Âu trong thế kỷ 16, đến sáp và sứ của những thế kỷ sau đó, đến các loại nhựa của những con búp bê ngày nay. Hoặc người sưu tầm có thể được truyền cảm hứng để nghiên cứu những con búp bê phản ánh những ý niệm của những gì trẻ em thích, hoặc nên thích như thế nào.” Similarly, people who collect dolls may go beyond simply enlarging their collection, and develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls. Or collectors might be inspired to study how dolls reflect notions of what children like, or ought to like.

23. Sixteenth century European dolls were normally made of wax and porcelain.

= Những con búp bê của châu Âu vào thế kỷ 16 thường được làm bằng sáp và sứ.

“Vẫn trong đoạn 7 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

= “phát triển một sự hứng thú với cách mà búp bê được tạo ra, hoặc các vật liệu mà được sử dụng. Những thứ này đã và đang thay đổi qua nhiều thế kỷ từ gỗ thứ mà đã là tiêu chuẩn ở châu Âu trong thế kỷ 16, đến sáp và sứ của những thế kỷ sau đó, đến các loại nhựa của những con búp bê ngày nay.” develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls.

24. Arranging a stamp collection by the size of the stamps is less common than other methods.

= Sắp xếp một bộ sưu tập tem theo kích cỡ của các con tem là ít phổ biến hơn những cách thức khác.

“Trong đoạn 8 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

= “Ví dụ, các nhà sưu tập tem sắp xếp tem của họ trong các album, thường rất gọn gàng, tổ chức bộ sưu tập của họ theo các nguyên tắc thông thường nhất định – có thể theo quốc gia với thứ tự chữ cái, hoặc nhóm các con tem theo những gì chúng miêu tả – người, chim, bản đồ, vân vân.” Stamp collectors, for instance, arrange their stamps in albums, usually very neatly, organising their collection according to certain commonplace principles – perhaps by country in alphabetical order, or grouping stamps by what they depict – people, birds, maps, and so on.

Trong cả đoạn 8 tác giả chỉ nói đến cách thức mà những người sưu tập tem sắp xếp các bộ sưu tập của họ, không có thông tin nói lên cách thức nào là phổ biến hơn hay kém.

 organising, grouping = arranging  commonplace = common principles = methods

Từ những dữ liệu và phân tích trên, kết luận đáp án của câu 24 là Not Given

25. Someone who collects unusual objects may want others to think he or she is also unusual.

= Người nào đó mà sưu tầm những vật phẩm khác thường có thể mong muốn những người khác nghĩ rằng anh ấy hay cô ấy cũng là khác thường.

“Trong đoạn 9 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

= “Một lý do, cố ý hoặc không, cho những gì người nào đó lựa chọn sưu tầm là để thể hiện chủ nghĩa cá nhân của nhà sưu tầm. Ví dụ, một người nào đó quyết định sưu tầm thứ gì đó đáng ngạc nhiên như những chiếc vòng cổ của chó, có thể truyền tải niềm tin của họ rằng bản thân chúng phải là rất thú vị.” One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s individualism. Someone who decides to collect something as unexpected as dog collars, for instance, may be conveying their belief that they must be interesting themselves.

One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s individualism. = Someone who collects unusual objects may want others to think he or she is also unusual.

Một lý do, cố ý hoặc không, cho những gì người nào đó lựa chọn sưu tầm là để thể hiện chủ nghĩa cá nhân của nhà sưu tầm. = Người nào đó mà sưu tầm những vật phẩm khác thường có thể mong muốn những người khác nghĩ rằng anh ấy hay cô ấy cũng là khác thường.

 something as unexpected = unusual objects  to show = want others to think  collector’s individualism he or she is also unusual =

Từ những dữ liệu và phân tích trên, kết luận đáp án của câu 25 là True

26. Collecting gives a feeling that other hobbies are unlikely to inspire.

= Việc sưu tầm trao cho một cảm giác mà những sở thích khác khó có thể gây cảm hứng.

“Trong đoạn cuối cùng của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

= “Tất nhiên, tất cả các sở thích đều mang đến sự vui sướng hạnh phúc, nhưng yếu tố chung trong việc sưu tập thường là niềm đam mê: còn hơn rất nhiều so với niềm vui sướng và hạnh phúc. Hơn hầu hết các sở thích khác, sưu tầm có thể là hoàn toàn toàn tâm toàn ý, và có thể trao cho một cảm giác mạnh mẽ về sự hoàn thành của cá nhân.” Of course, all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment.

… all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment. = Collecting gives a feeling that other hobbies are unlikely to inspire.

… tất cả các sở thích đều mang đến sự vui sướng hạnh phúc, nhưng yếu tố chung trong việc sưu tập thường là niềm đam mê: còn hơn rất nhiều so với niềm vui sướng và hạnh phúc. Hơn hầu hết các sở thích khác, sưu tầm có thể là hoàn toàn toàn tâm toàn ý, và có thể trao cho một cảm giác mạnh mẽ về sự hoàn thành của cá nhân. = Việc sưu tầm trao cho một cảm giác mà những sở thích khác khó có thể gây cảm hứng.

 pleasure, passion, a strong sense of personal fulfilment = feeling to show = want others to think more than most other hobbies = other hobbies are unlikely to be totally engrossing, and can give = to inspire

Từ những dữ liệu và phân tích trên, kết luận đáp án của câu 26 là True

Collecting as a hobby

Sưu tầm như một sở thích

Cambridge IELTS 12: Test 5 – Reading Passage 1 – Answer explanation with key vocab, keyword tables, & Translation Cambridge IELTS 12: Test 5 – Reading Passage 3 – Answer explanation with key vocab, keyword tables, & Translation

Collecting must be one of the most varied of human activities, and it’s one that many of us psychologists find fascinating. Many forms of collecting have been dignified with a technical name: an archtophilist collects teddy bears, a philatelist collects postage stamps, and a deltiologist collects postcards. Amassing hundreds or even thousands of postcards, chocolate wrappers or whatever, takes time, energy and money that could surely to much more productive use. And yet there are millions of collectors around the world. Why do they do it?

Sưu tầm phải là một trong những hoạt động đa dạng nhất của loài người, và nó là một hoạt động mà nhiều nhà tâm lý học của chúng ta thấy rằng hấp dẫn. Nhiều hình thức sưu tầm đã được tôn lên với một cái tên chuyên môn: một archtophilist sưu tầm gấu bông teddy, một philatelist sưu tập tem bưu chính, và một deltiologist sưu tập bưu thiếp. Tích lũy hàng trăm hoặc thậm chí hàng ngàn bưu thiếp, giấy gói sô cô la hoặc bất cứ thứ gì, làm mất thời gian, năng lượng và tiền bạc mà có thể chắc chắn sử dụng hiệu quả hơn nhiều. Và vẫn có hàng triệu nhà sưu tập trên khắp thế giới. Tại sao họ làm điều đó?

There are the people who collect because they want to make money – this could be called an instrumental reason for collecting; that is, collecting as a means to an end. They’ll look for, say, antiques that they can buy cheaply and expect to be able to sell at a profit. But there may well be a psychological element, too – buying cheap and selling dear can give the collector a sense of triumph. And as selling online is so easy, more and more people are joining in.

Có những người sưu tầm vì họ muốn kiếm tiền – điều này có thể được gọi là lý do công cụ cho việc sưu tầm; đó là, sưu tập như là một phương tiện cho một mục đích. Họ sẽ tìm kiếm, ví dụ, những đồ cổ mà họ có thể mua rẻ và mong muốn có thể bán với một mức lợi nhuận. Nhưng cũng có thể là một yếu tố tâm lý – mua rẻ và bán lấy lãi có thể mang lại cho nhà sưu tập một cảm giác chiến thắng. Và khi bán hàng trực tuyến thật dễ dàng, ngày càng có nhiều người tham gia.

Many collectors collect to develop their social life, attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging information on items. This is a variant on joining a bridge club or a gym, and similarly brings them into contact with like-minded people.

Nhiều nhà sưu tập thu thập để phát triển đời sống xã hội của họ, tham dự các cuộc hội họp của một nhóm các nhà sưu tầm và trao đổi thông tin về các vật phẩm. Đây là một biến thể trong việc tham gia một câu lạc bộ chơi bài bridge hay một phòng tập gym, và tương tự như vậy đưa họ đến việc tiếp xúc với những người có cùng sở thích.

Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless. There is a danger, though, that if the individual is ever lucky enough to find what they’re looking for, rather than celebrating their success, they may feel empty, now that the goal that drove them on has gone.

Một động cơ thúc đẩy khác cho việc sưu tầm là mong muốn tìm một thứ gì đó đặc biệt, hoặc một mẫu cụ thể của một vật phẩm được sưu tập, chẳng hạn như một bản ghi âm sớm hiếm có bởi một ca sĩ nào đó. Một số người có thể dành cả cuộc đời của họ trong một cuộc săn đuổi cho điều này. Về mặt tâm lý, điều này có thể mang lại một mục đích cho một cuộc sống mà nếu không thì sẽ cảm thấy không có mục đích. Mặc dù, có một hiểm họa mà nếu cá nhân thực sự đủ may mắn để tìm thấy những gì họ đang tìm kiếm, thay vì ăn mừng cho sự thành công của họ, họ có thể cảm thấy trống rỗng, bây giờ mục tiêu mà đã thúc đẩy họ đã biến mất.

If you think about collecting postage stamps, another potential reason for it – or, perhaps, a result of collecting – is its educational value. Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, and to the plants, animals, or famous people shown on their stamps. Similarly, in the 19th century, many collectors amassed fossils, animals and plants from around the globe, and their collections provided a vast amount of information about the natural world. Without those collections, our understanding would be greatly inferior to what it is.

Nếu bạn nghĩ về việc thu thập tem bưu chính, một lý do tiềm năng khác cho điều này – hoặc, có lẽ, một kết quả của việc sưu tập – là giá trị giáo dục của nó. Sưu tầm tem mở cánh cửa sổ đến các quốc gia khác, và đến các loài thực vật, động vật hoặc những người nổi tiếng được trình bầy trên những con tem của họ. Tương tự, vào thế kỷ 19, nhiều nhà sưu tầm đã sưu tập hóa thạch, động vật và thực vật từ khắp nơi quanh địa cầu, và các bộ sưu tập của họ đã cung cấp một lượng lớn thông tin về thế giới tự nhiên. Nếu không có các bộ sưu tập này, sự hiểu biết của chúng ta có thể hạn hẹp hơn rất nhiều so với thực tế của nó.

Similarly, people who collect dolls may go beyond simply enlarging their collection, and develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls. Or collectors might be inspired to study how dolls reflect notions of what children like, or ought to like.

Tương tự như vậy, những người sưu tầm búp bê có thể đi vượt quá việc chỉ đơn giản mở rộng bộ sưu tập của họ, và phát triển một sự hứng thú với cách mà búp bê được tạo ra, hoặc các vật liệu mà được sử dụng. Những thứ này đã và đang thay đổi qua nhiều thế kỷ từ gỗ thứ mà đã là tiêu chuẩn ở châu Âu trong thế kỷ 16, đến sáp và sứ của những thế kỷ sau đó, đến các loại nhựa của những con búp bê ngày nay. Hoặc người sưu tầm có thể được truyền cảm hứng để nghiên cứu những con búp bê phản ánh những ý niệm của những gì trẻ em thích, hoặc nên thích như thế nào.

Not all collectors are interested in learning from their hobby, though, so what we might call a psychological reason for collecting is the need for a sense of control, perhaps as a way of dealing with insecurity. Stamp collectors, for instance, arrange their stamps in albums, usually very neatly, organising their collection according to certain commonplace principles -perhaps by country in alphabetical order, or grouping stamps by what they depict – people, birds, maps, and so on.

Tuy nhiên, không phải tất cả các nhà sưu tầm đều quan tâm đến việc học hỏi từ sở thích của họ, nên điều mà chúng ta có thể gọi là một lý do tâm lý cho việc sưu tập là sự cần thiết cho một cảm giác kiểm soát, có lẽ như một cái cách để đối phó với sự thiếu an toàn. Ví dụ, các nhà sưu tập tem sắp xếp tem của họ trong các album, thường rất gọn gàng, tổ chức bộ sưu tập của họ theo các nguyên tắc thông thường nhất định – có thể theo quốc gia với thứ tự chữ cái, hoặc nhóm các con tem theo những gì chúng miêu tả – người, chim, bản đồ, vân vân.

One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s individualism. Someone who decides to collect something as unexpected as dog collars, for instance, may be conveying their belief that they must be interesting themselves. And believe it or not, there is at least one dog collar museum in existence, and it grew out of a personal collection.

Một lý do, cố ý hoặc không, cho những gì người nào đó lựa chọn sưu tầm là để thể hiện chủ nghĩa cá nhân của nhà sưu tầm. Ví dụ, một người nào đó quyết định sưu tầm thứ gì đó đáng ngạc nhiên như những chiếc vòng cổ của chó, có thể truyền tải niềm tin của họ rằng bản thân chúng phải là rất thú vị. Và tin vào nó hay không, có ít nhất một viện bảo tàng vòng cổ chó đang tồn tại, và nó phát triển từ một bộ sưu tập cá nhân.

Of course, all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment. To non-collectors, it may appear an eccentric, if harmless, way of spending time, but potentially, collecting has a lot going for it.

Tất nhiên, tất cả các sở thích đều mang đến sự vui sướng hạnh phúc, nhưng yếu tố chung trong việc sưu tập thường là niềm đam mê: còn hơn rất nhiều so với niềm vui sướng và hạnh phúc. Hơn hầu hết các sở thích khác, sưu tầm có thể là hoàn toàn toàn tâm toàn ý, và có thể trao cho một cảm giác mạnh mẽ về sự hoàn thành của cá nhân. Đối với những người không phải là nhà sưu tầm, điều này có vẻ là một sự lập dị, nếu vô hại, cách sử dụng thời gian, nhưng một cách tiềm năng, sự sưu tầm có rất nhiều lợi ích.

many of us psychologists

Hướng dẫn các kỹ năng Ielts:

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