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READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14–26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Life lessons from villains, crooks and gangsters
(A) A notorious Mexican drug baron’s audacious escape from prison in July doesn’t, at first, appear to have much to teach corporate boards. But some in the business world suggest otherwise. Beyond the morally reprehensible side of criminals’ work, some business gurus say organised crime syndicates, computer hackers, pirates and others operating outside the law could teach legitimate corporations a thing or two about how to hustle and respond to rapid change.
(C) Joaquin Guzman, the head of the Mexican Sinaloa drug cartel, for instance, slipped out of his prison cell through a tiny hole in his shower that led to a mile-long tunnel fitted with lights and ventilation. Making a break for it required creative thinking, long-term planning and perseverance – essential skills similar to those needed to achieve success in big business.
(E) By contrast, many legitimate businesses fail because they hesitate to adapt quickly to changing market winds. One high-profile example is movie and game rental company Blockbuster, which didn’t keep up with the market and lost business to mail order video rentals and streaming technologies. The brand has all but faded from view. Liddell argues the difference between the two groups is that criminal organisations often have improvisation encoded into their daily behaviour, while larger companies think of innovation as a set process. “This is a leadership challenge,” said Liddell. “How well companies innovate and organise is a reflection of leadership.”
(F) Cash-strapped start-ups also use unorthodox strategies to problem solve and build their businesses up from scratch. This creativity and innovation is often borne out of necessity, such as tight budgets. Both criminals and start-up founders “question authority, act outside the system and see new and clever ways of doing things,” said Goodman. “Either they become Elon Musk or El Chapo.” And, some entrepreneurs aren’t even afraid to operate in legal grey areas in their effort to disrupt the marketplace. The co-founders of music streaming service Napster, for example, knowingly broke music copyright rules with their first online file sharing service, but their technology paved the way for legal innovation as regulators caught up.
(G) Goodman and others believe thinking hard about problem solving before worrying about restrictions could prevent established companies falling victim to rivals less constrained by tradition. In their book The Misfit Economy, Alexa Clay and Kyra Maya Phillips examine how individuals can apply that mindset to become more innovative and entrepreneurial within corporate structures. They studied not just violent criminals like Somali pirates, but others who break the rules in order to find creative solutions to their business problems, such as people living in the slums of Mumbai or computer hackers. They picked out five common traits among this group: the ability to hustle, pivot, provoke, hack and copycat.
(H) Clay gives a Saudi entrepreneur named Walid Abdul-Wahab as a prime example. Abdul-Wahab worked with Amish farmers to bring camel milk to American consumers even before US regulators approved it. Through perseverance, he eventually found a network of Amish camel milk farmers and started selling the product via social media. Now his company, Desert Farms, sells to giant mainstream retailers like Whole Foods Market. Those on the fringe don’t always have the option of traditional, corporate jobs and that forces them to think more creatively about how to make a living, Clay said. They must develop grit and resilience in order to last outside the cushy confines of cubicle life. “In many cases scarcity is the mother of invention,” Clay said.
Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 7, Test 1: Reading Passage 2; Making Every Drop Count; With Top Solutions And Step
This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1 Reading Passage 2, which is entitled ‘MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT’. This is a post primarily for IELTS candidates who have great problems in finding answers for the Academic Reading module. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process and I sincerely hope this post can help you in your IELTS Reading preparation.
IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1: AC Reading Module
Reading Passage 2:
The headline of the passage: MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT
Questions 14-20 (List of headings):
[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.
TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence. ]
Question 14: Paragraph A
In the first lines of paragraph A, the writer says, “The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources.”
Then in lines 4-7, the writer mentions, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”
Here, the Roman Empire, nine major systems = ancient water supplies,
So, the answer is: xi (A description of ancient water supplies)
Question 15: Paragraph C
Paragraph C narrates the dangers to physical condition as the result of a shortage of pure water. The writer mentions in lines 4-7, “.. … . . more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, .. . .. . .”
So, the answer is: vii (the relevance to health)
Question 16: Paragraph D
Paragraph D details about the environmental effects of water-shortage.
In lines 4-7 the writer mentions, “. . .. … . more than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity.”
So, the answer is: v (Environmental effects)
Question 17: Paragraph E
In paragraph E, take a look at the following sentences.
“. .. … however, the resource planners think about water is beginning to change.” (lines 1-2).
“The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – .. ..” (lines 2-3)
“Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities,. .. ..” (lines 4-5)
Here, resource planners/water experts = scientists, demanding = call, beginning to change/slowly shifting back, existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways = revision of policy,
So, the answer is: i (Scientists’ call for a revision of policy)
Question 18: Paragraph F
In paragraph F, take a close look at the following sentences.
In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted.”
Then, in lines 3-5, the writer says, “Although population, industrial output, and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed.”
Here, unexpectedly = surprising, the rate.. .. has slowed = downward trend,
So, the answer is: ix (A surprising downward trend in demand for water)
Question 19: Paragraph G
Paragraph G opens with this question, “What explains this remarkable turn of events?”
This suggests that the author will give an explanation of the reasons behind this reduced use of water.
In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use.”
This means that there are two reasons behind reduced water use; first, people have found out ways to use water efficiently, and second, communities now think twice about their priorities for how to use water.
So, the answer is: ii (An explanation for reduced water use)
Question 20: Paragraph H
In paragraph H, we find that the writer feels the need to raise standards in use of water and planning for better infrastructure, “On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget.”
Here, higher specifications = raise standards,
So, the answer is: x (The need to raise standards)
Questions 21-26 (YES, NO, NOT GIVEN)
[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:
The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES
The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN]
[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]
Question 21: Water use per person is higher in the industrial world than it was in Ancient Rome.
Keywords for this question: water use, per person, higher, industrial world, Ancient Rome,
The last lines of paragraph A give us the answer to this question. The writer says here, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”
Here, as much water per person . .. . . as is provided.. .. today means the supply of water is not higher; it is rather equal.
So, the answer is: NO
Question 22: Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.
Keywords for this question: feeding, increasing populations, possible, due to, improved irrigation system,
In paragraph B the writer says in lines 5-7, “Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.”
Here, soaring = increasing, because of = due primarily to, artificial irrigation systems = improved irrigation systems,
So, the answer is: YES
Question 23: Modern water systems imitate those of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Keywords for this question: modern water systems, imitate, ancient Greeks and Romans,
In paragraph C the writer says in lines 2-3, “.. . … half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans.”
However, we do not find any information that says modern water systems are a copied version of the Ancient Greek and Roman water systems.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question 24: Industrial growth is increasing the overall demand for water.
Keywords for this question: industrial growth, increasing, overall demand, water,
In paragraph F the writer argues in lines 3-5, “.. .. . Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed.”
Here, the rate . .. . has slowed = demand of water is decreasing.
Therefore, the lines directly contradict the information provided in question 24.
So, the answer is: NO
Question 25: Modern technologies have led to reduction in the domestic water consumption.
Keywords for this question: modern technologies, led to, reduction, domestic water consumption,
In paragraph G the author states in lines 5-7, “.. . . . But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry.”
Here, thanks to a range of new technologies = modern technologies have led to,
Therefore, the lines directly match with the statement in question 25.
So, the answer is: YES
Question 26: In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.
Keywords for this question: future, governments, should maintain, ownership, water infrastructures,
Information relating to government and water infrastructures can only be traced in paragraphs H and E.
In paragraph E, the writer only says: “Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities.” There is no discussion about ownership whatsoever.
In paragraph H: “…dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built….”. But again there is a clear indication of ownership here. Therefore, the sentences lack information about whether governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures or not.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
KIIP Level 4 Test
사회통합프로그램 4단계 중간평가
) is the exam designed to evaluate your Korean proficiency after finishing the KIIP Korean class level 4.
The KIIP Level 4 test
is divided into 2 sections:
The paper test
is composed of a quiz test with 28 questions and a writing test with 2 questions. The quiz test will cover all vocabulary, grammar, reading, and Korean culture in the KIIP level 3 and level 4 books with a total score of 70 points in 40 minutes. That means you will get ~2.5 points for each correct answer. The writing test has 2 questions with a total score of 5 points and last for 10 minutes.
The interview test
has 5 questions with a total score of 25 points (5 score/question). The interview topic is randomly selected from any lessons studied in the KIIP level 3 or 4 books. You will be given a test sheet with some pictures talking about one topic. The first 3 questions are related to the pictures. The 2 remaining questions are mostly about cultural understanding. During the interview test, you have to wait in turn, so it will take time if you are at the end of the interview list.
To pass the test, you must score at least 60 out of 100 points. However, if you fail the exam, there are 2 options: – 1st: You can retake the test again until you pass, without the need of retaking the class.
Download KIIP 4 test sample
Kỳ thi kết thúc lớp KIIP 4 (tiếng Hàn: 사회통합프로그램 중간평가) là kỳ thi đánh giá năng lực tiếng Hàn của bạn sau khi đã hoàn thành lớp KIIP 4 trung cấp 2.
Đề thi giữa giai đoạn được chia làm 2 phần: phần thi giấy và thi phỏng vấn
Phần thi giấy gồm 2 phần: thi trắc nghiệm và thi viết. Thi trắc nghiệm gồm 28 câu hỏi, trong vòng 40 phút, với tổng điểm là 70 điểm, tức ~2.5 điểm cho mỗi câu trả lời đúng. Phần thi viết gồm 2 câu, trong 10 phút, với tổng 5 điểm. Nội dung của phần thi này bao gồm từ vựng, ngữ pháp, đọc hiểu, và văn hóa đã học ở lớp KIIP 3 trung cấp 1 và KIIP 4 trung cấp 2.
Để vượt qua kỳ thi, bạn phải đạt được ít nhất 60 điểm trong tổng số 100 điểm.
Bạn có thể tải Đề thi kết thúc lớp KIIP 4
1 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Unit 1 1. I would like to stay in the Ice Hotel. I think it is The Ice Hotel a unique place. 2. The most unusual place that I have heard of Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) is this Ice Hotel. 1. It is winter in the photo. I know that because I 3. An interesting place I have visited is Bangkok can see a lot of ice. in Thailand. I saw many amazing palaces and 2. I think this hotel must be in a cold place. temples there. 3. I think this hotel is special because it is made of ice. Grammar Are you into skiing? Vocabulary Preview Of course, all of these hotels are made of ice. 1. c 2. f 3. b 4. e 5. d 6. a Vocabulary and Idiom Review Reading Comprehension 1. b 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. b 1. b 2. d 3. c 4. b 5. b 6. a 7. d 8. b 9. c 10. b Idiomatic Expressions 1. check in 2. am into 3. made (out) of Summary 1. unique 2. freezing 3. Surprisingly 4. fantastic 5. cozy Listening 1. d 2. d 3. b Discussion ( answers will vary). 1 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 3.
2 The first sandwich was made with bread and Unit 2 meat. Food Firsts Discussion ( answers will vary). Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) 1. My favorite foods from other countries are 1. My favorite food is Cajun chicken salad. Tom Yang soup and fried noodles. Tom Yang 2. The most unusual food I have eaten is fried soup is from Thailand and fried noodles are from insects. Hong Kong. 3. I can cook many kinds of dishes, from 2. Some traditional foods from Canada are spaghetti to steak. barbequed salmon and steak. 3. One untrue story people believe is that Vocabulary Preview spaghetti was first made in Italy. In fact, noodles 1. f 2. c 3. b 4. a 5. e 6. d were first made in China. Reading Comprehension Grammar 1. d 2. b 3. a 4. d 5. b Cooks of wealthy English families during the time of Richard I were making curry dishes. Idiomatic Expressions The Persians were eating round, flat bread with 1. Dig in cheese in the 500s. 2. find out 3. catching on Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. d 2. d 3.
3 C 4. a 5. d Summary 6. d 7. b 8. a 9. c 10. b 1. 1377 2. Wealthy 3. Created 4. 500s 5. Introduced 6. 1891. Listening 1. Mike found Janet surfing the Internet. 2. Lord Montagu was the Earl of Sandwich. 2 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. Using the letters of the alphabet, the WMO. makes a list of names that includes both male and female names. Unit 3 2. The lists are made of names that start with Hurricane Who? different letters, but the lists do not include names beginning with the letters Q, U, X, Y, and Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Z. 1. A hurricane is a big storm with high winds and 3. Asian countries name hurricanes using a list lots of rain. of words that includes flowers, animals, trees, 2. I think hurricanes usually occur along the and other similar things. coasts of continents. They always start out in the ocean. Listening 3. We usually get hurricanes in my country in the 1. [ ] True [ ] False spring and in the fall. There may be five or six 2. [ ] True [ ] False each season.
4 3. [ ] True [ ] False Vocabulary Preview Discussion ( answers will vary). 1. d 2. b 3. c 4. e 5. a 6. f 1. I think non-human names are better for cyclones. It’s more interesting that way. Reading Comprehension 2. I have never experienced a tropical cyclone. 1. c 2. c 3. c 4. d 5. b 3. Winter is the worst season in my country, and summer is the best season. Idiomatic Expressions 1. make up Grammar 2. keeps up with Tropical cyclones are called typhoons in Asia 3. keep an eye out for and hurricanes in North and South America. The World Meteorological Organization decides Summary what names will be used. (Possible answers ). Vocabulary and Idiom Review 3 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. a 5. c 3. produces 4. shut down 6. c 7. a 8. b 9. a 10. b 5. butterflies Listening 1. c 2. b 3. d Unit 4 Discussion ( answers will vary). How Did Those Get in There? 1. The last time I was nervous was during a piano performance for a contest. My body Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) reacted to my nervousness by making me go to 1.
5 When I have to speak in front of my class, I the bathroom a lot before my performance. get very nervous. 2. To reduce stress, I read comic books or listen 2. My legs are affected by this feeling. They to music. become very weak and shaky. 3. Any situation where I have to do something or 3. Related to this feeling, I think of rabbits say something in front of a lot of people gives because they always seem nervous to me. me butterflies in my stomach. Vocabulary Preview Grammar 1. f 2. a 3. b 4. e 5. d 6. c Cortisol speeds up the way the stomach works, which makes these people feel sick. Reading Comprehension Stepping out onto the stage will also help those 1. c 2. c 3. b 4. c 5. a butterflies fly away. Idiomatic Expressions Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. get rid of 1. d 2. c 3. a 4. a 5. b 2. play a role in 6. c 7. b 8. b 9. c 10. a 3. shut down Summary 1. respond 2. normal 4 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Summary 1. position 2. wake up 3. still 4. antennae 5. respond to 6. loud Listening 1.
6 An interesting thing about the New Zealand weta is that it freezes every night. Unit 5 2. The man learned that the New Zealand weta A Bug’s Sleep is related to crickets. 3. The man found out about the New Zealand Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) weta in his biology class. 1. I don’t think insects sleep. They don’t have a big enough brain to need sleep. Discussion ( answers will vary). 2. Maybe an insect is very still and quiet if it 1. I think we need sleep to rest our brains and sleeps. bodies. 3. I usually need 7-8 hours of sleep. If I don’t get 2. One experiment could be to measure enough sleep, I get angry very easily. changes in the brain activity of insects. If their brain activity changes when they are still, maybe Vocabulary Preview they are sleeping. 1. a 2. c 3. d 4. e 5. f 6. b 3. I know that insects have no bones or lungs. Reading Comprehension Grammar 1. c 2. d 3. c 4. c 5. a Additionally, they don’t wake up easily when hearing noises or seeing light. Idiomatic Expressions However, they start to move around when louder 1.
7 Come out of noised are made. 2. moves around 3. For example Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. c 2. a 3. b 4. d 5. c 5 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 6. b 7. b 8. b 9. a 10. b Summary (Possible answers ). 1. Tiger won the World Golf Championships before he turned 25, setting the record as the youngest player to ever win all four championships. 2. Tiger wants to help others who can’t play golf because he was helped by so many people as a child. Unit 6 3. Tiger created the Tiger Woods Foundation so Tiger’s Tale that golf would be open to everyone. Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Listening 1. Jack Nicklaus is a famous golfer. 1. [ ] True [ ] False 2. The special thing about Tiger Woods is that 2. [ ] True [ ] False he is very young, but successful. 3. [ ] True [ ] False 3. A role model is someone who I want to act like. Discussion ( answers will vary). 1. I don’t like to play golf. I think it is a little Vocabulary Preview boring. 1. a 2. b 3. e 4. c 5. f 6. d 2. I enjoy playing badminton or basketball.
8 3. If I had lots of money, I would give some to Reading Comprehension my family, give some to charity, and put the rest 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. c 5. c in the bank. Idiomatic Expressions Grammar 1. lend, a hand Tiger Woods started playing golf professionally 2. holds the record for in 1996. 3. looks up to Because many people helped Tiger as a child, he wants to lend a hand to others now. 6 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. on a daily basis Vocabulary and Idiom Review 2. agree with 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. c 3. set up 6. d 7. d 8. b 9. b 10. a Summary 1. set up 2. reports 3. balanced 4. responsibility 5. agrees with Listening Unit 7 1. b 2. c 3. d Not the Normal News Discussion ( answers will vary). Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) 1. I usually read news reports online. 1. One thing in the news over the past few days 2. My favorite news magazine is News Today was the death of a famous singer in my country. because its articles are easy to read. 2. The information in this article was sad and a 3.
9 I know about a television program that only little scary because the singer died from a reports entertaining stories, mostly about the medical accident. lives of movie stars. 3. One funny story that I heard recently was about some research related to pets and how Grammar pets can control their owners. Newspapers always seem to report about the bad things happening in society. Vocabulary Preview HappyNews gets fan mail from its readers on a 1. f 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. b daily basis. Reading Comprehension Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. a 1. a 2. b 3. d 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. c 9. b 10. b Idiomatic Expressions 7 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Summary 1. finishes 2. start up 3. perfect 4. machine 5. give up 6. successfully Listening 1. The speaker says that the older brother flew in the Wright Flyer. 2. The distance that the Wright Flyer went was 51 meters. Unit 8 3. That is about the distance from the front of the The Wright Way to Fly plane to the back. Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Discussion ( answers will vary).
10 1. I think that the Wright brothers made the first 1. Thomas Edison is also a famous inventor. airplane. They are famous because they flew. 2. My father enjoys making things. He likes to 2. The Wright brothers were from the US. make furniture. 3. I think they lived about 100 years ago. 3. I last flew in an airplane last summer. I visited my family in New Zealand. Vocabulary Preview 1. f 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. a Grammar Instead of sitting in class and Reading , they Reading Comprehension wanted to work and make things, like machines. 1. c 2. d 3. c 4. d 5. b Then the brothers decided to make their glider into a flying machine. Idiomatic Expressions 1. give up Vocabulary and Idiom Review 2. break down 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. a 5. a 3. start up 6. a 7. c 8. c 9. a 10. c 8 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. got around 2. posing as 3. in the hands of Summary (Possible answers ). 1. Mitnick, who was sent to prison, decided to use his skills to set up a computer security firm. 2. Mitnick believes the biggest danger to security these days is the people using the programs.
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