Xu Hướng 2/2023 # Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 7, Test 1: Reading Passage 2; Making Every Drop Count; With Top Solutions And Step # Top 2 View | Acevn.edu.vn

Xu Hướng 2/2023 # Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 7, Test 1: Reading Passage 2; Making Every Drop Count; With Top Solutions And Step # Top 2 View

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This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1 Reading Passage 2, which is entitled ‘MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT’. This is a post primarily for IELTS candidates who have great problems in finding answers for the Academic Reading module. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process and I sincerely hope this post can help you in your IELTS Reading preparation.

IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2:

The headline of the passage: MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT

Questions 14-20 (List of headings):

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence. ]

Question 14: Paragraph A

In the first lines of paragraph A, the writer says, “The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources.”  

Then in lines 4-7, the writer mentions, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, the Roman Empire, nine major systems = ancient water supplies,

So, the answer is: xi (A description of ancient water supplies)

Question 15: Paragraph C

Paragraph C narrates the dangers to physical condition as the result of a shortage of pure water. The writer mentions in lines 4-7, “.. … . . more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, .. . .. . .”

So, the answer is: vii (the relevance to health)

Question 16: Paragraph D

Paragraph D details about the environmental effects of water-shortage.

In lines 4-7 the writer mentions, “. . .. … . more than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity.”

So, the answer is: v (Environmental effects)

Question 17: Paragraph E

In paragraph E, take a look at the following sentences.

“. .. … however, the resource planners think about water is beginning to change.” (lines 1-2).

“The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – .. ..” (lines 2-3)

“Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities,. .. ..” (lines 4-5)

Here, resource planners/water experts = scientists, demanding = call, beginning to change/slowly shifting back, existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways = revision of policy,

So, the answer is: i (Scientists’ call for a revision of policy)

Question 18: Paragraph F

In paragraph F, take a close look at the following sentences.   

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted.”

Then, in lines 3-5, the writer says, “Although population, industrial output, and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed.”

Here, unexpectedly = surprising, the rate.. .. has slowed = downward trend,

So, the answer is: ix (A surprising downward trend in demand for water)

Question 19: Paragraph G

Paragraph G opens with this question, “What explains this remarkable turn of events?”

This suggests that the author will give an explanation of the reasons behind this reduced use of water.

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use.”

This means that there are two reasons behind reduced water use; first, people have found out ways to use water efficiently, and second, communities now think twice about their priorities for how to use water.

So, the answer is: ii (An explanation for reduced water use)

Question 20: Paragraph H

In paragraph H, we find that the writer feels the need to raise standards in use of water and planning for better infrastructure, “On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget.”

Here, higher specifications = raise standards,

So, the answer is: x (The need to raise standards)

Questions 21-26 (YES, NO, NOT GIVEN)

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES

The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO

The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN]

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 21: Water use per person is higher in the industrial world than it was in Ancient Rome.

Keywords for this question: water use, per person, higher, industrial world, Ancient Rome,

The last lines of paragraph A give us the answer to this question. The writer says here, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, as much water per person . .. . . as is provided.. .. today means the supply of water is not higher; it is rather equal.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 22: Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.

Keywords for this question: feeding, increasing populations, possible, due to, improved irrigation system,

In paragraph B the writer says in lines 5-7, “Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.”

Here, soaring = increasing, because of = due primarily to, artificial irrigation systems = improved irrigation systems,

So, the answer is: YES

Question 23: Modern water systems imitate those of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Keywords for this question: modern water systems, imitate, ancient Greeks and Romans,

In paragraph C the writer says in lines 2-3, “.. . … half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans.”

However, we do not find any information that says modern water systems are a copied version of the Ancient Greek and Roman water systems.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 24: Industrial growth is increasing the overall demand for water.

Keywords for this question: industrial growth, increasing, overall demand, water,  

In paragraph F the writer argues in lines 3-5, “.. .. . Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed.”

Here, the rate . .. . has slowed = demand of water is decreasing.

Therefore, the lines directly contradict the information provided in question 24.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 25: Modern technologies have led to reduction in the domestic water consumption.

Keywords for this question: modern technologies, led to, reduction, domestic water consumption,   

In paragraph G the author states in lines 5-7, “.. . . . But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry.”

Here, thanks to a range of new technologies = modern technologies have led to,

Therefore, the lines directly match with the statement in question 25.  

So, the answer is: YES

Question 26: In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.

Keywords for this question: future, governments, should maintain, ownership, water infrastructures,

Information relating to government and water infrastructures can only be traced in paragraphs H and E.

In paragraph E, the writer only says: “Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities.” There is no discussion about ownership whatsoever. 

In paragraph H:  “…dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built….”.  But again there is a clear indication of ownership here. Therefore, the sentences lack information about whether governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

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Ielts Reading: Cambridge 12 Test 5 Passage 1

IELTS Reading: Cambridge 12 Test 5 Passage 1- Cork – solutions with explanations

This post on IELTS Reading deals with the in-depth analysis of Cambridge 12 Test 5 Reading Passage 1. The passage is entitled ‘ Cork‘. I’ve provided all the solutions here with some detailed explanations. Please, get the book Cambridge IELTS series 12 when you read the post. It will surely help you to find out the answers from the passage.

Title of Reading Passage 1: Cork

Question 1-5 : TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

Note: This type of question maintains a sequence. So, if you find the answer to question 2 in the first few lines of Paragraph 2, look for the answer to question 1 in paragraph 1.

Strategies to answer the questions: This post may help you to answer this type of question easily.

http://www.ieltsdeal.com/2018/01/13/ielts-reading-a-smart-strategy-to-handle-yes-no-not-given/

Now let’s look at the questions and explanations.

Keywords for the question: thickest bark

In paragraph 1 of the passage the author mentions, “Cork- the thick bark of the cork oak tree ( Quercus suber) – is a remarkable material.” Again, in paragraph 2, the author mentions, “Its bark grows up to 20cm in thickness.” In both these lines, the word THICK is available. But, in our question, the phrase is the thickest bark. Here, the word thickest is in superlative form of adjective, which means this tree has to be in the rank no. 1 as far as thickness is concerned. There is no such comparison in the passage and it means that our answer is not available in the passage.

Keywords for the question: synthetic cork, same cellular structure, natural cork

In paragraph 2 line 9-13, the author mentions the cellular structure of the bark of the cork oak “the bark of the cork oak has a particular cellular structure – with about 40 million cells per cubic centimetre – that technology has never succeeded in replicating “.

Here, there is a clear contradiction or disagreement between the question and the above-quoted text from the passage. The question says, scientists have developed or discovered or invented an artificial synthetic cork that matches the cellular structure of natural cork. But the words ” never succeeded in replicating” means that they have not been successful to make anything similar to the natural cork, with all of the same qualities.

Here, the word replicate may create confusion as a new or unknown word, which means duplicate or same.

Keywords for the question: individual, 25 years, the first and second harvest

Take a close look at paragraph 4, which talks about the harvesting of an individual cork oak tree. The author says, “From the planting of a cork sapling to the first harvest takes 25 years, and of approximately a decade must separate harvests from an individual tree”.

* Approximately a decade = nearly 10 years. So, the gap is 10 years, not 25 years.

* A gap = must be left……….. between

Note: If there is only a numeric (number) difference between the question and the passage, the answer is always False. Here is a picture to explain question no. 3 in a better way.

The word stripped is directly mentioned in paragraph 4 (Follow the order of the text from the previous question). Here, in line 15 the author states, “If the bark is stripped on a day when it’s too cold – or when the air is damp – the tree will be damaged”.

This text agrees with the question, but in a reverse pattern. Here, the word “damp” is antonym for the word “dry”. So, the bark should not be stripped in damp atmospheric conditions; rather, it needs to be stripped in dry atmospheric conditions.

Keywords for the question: only way, remove, by hand

The answer is available in paragraph 5, where the author maintains, “No mechanical means of stripping cork bark has been invented, so the job is done by teams of highly skilled workers.”

Since the author’s negative statement “no mechanical means has been invented” suggests that there is no mechanical technology available to remove the bark, it has to be done by hand (the hands of highly skilled workers).

Question 6-13: NOTE-COMPLETION (One word only)

Note: This type of question is nothing more than filling in the blanks. Read the title of the note, which is very important to have an idea about the questions and targeted paragraphs to find the answers.

Keywords for the question: affect, bottle contents

First, find the main keyword “bottle contents” and then scan the line carefully. The author states in paragraph 6, “Recent years have seen the end of the virtual monopoly of cork as the material for bottle stoppers, due to concerns about the effect it may have on the contents of the bottle…..The tiniest concentrations – as little as three or four parts to a trillion – can spoil the taste of the product contained in the bottle. The result has been a gradual yet steady move first towards plastic stoppers and, more recently, to aluminium screw caps.”

Here, look at the synonymous links.

Affect = spoil * Bottle contents = the product contained in the bottle

Keywords for the question: produce

Keywords for the question: use

In the final sentence of paragraph 6, the author states, ” These substitutes are to manufacture and, in the case of screw caps, more convenient for the user”.

These substitutes = aluminium screw caps

Manufacture = produce,

for the user = to use

So, we can gather the meaning from here that they are to produce and more convenient for the user. However, the question requires ONE WORD ONLY, so the answers for question 7 and 8 have to be “cheaper” and “convenient”.

So, the answers are:

8. convenient

Keywords for the question: suit, quality products

We find some information about quality products in the sentence in paragraph 7 line 3: “Firstly, its(the cork bottle stopper) traditional image is more in keeping with that of the type of high quality goods with which it has long been associated”.

Here, the phrase “in keeping with” means “suit”. So the answer is “traditional image”, but the answer requires only one word, so it has to be “image”. It is because you have to choose noun between noun and adjective.

Keywords for the question: made from, material

In the very following sentence, the author mentions “Secondly – and very importantly – cork is a sustainable product that can be recycled without difficulty “.

Recycling often is linked with the material. So the author is referring to its material here. The answer is “sustainable” and “recycled” Here, without difficulty = easily

So, the answers are:

11. recycled

Keywords for the question: cork forests, aid

Keywords for the question: cork forests, stop

In paragraph 7 line 9-the end the author states about the cork forests – “Moreover, cork forests are a resource which support local biodiversity, and prevent desertification in the regions where they are planted. So, given the current concerns about environmental issues, the future of this ancient material once again looks promising”.

Here, support = aid

Prevent = stop.

So the answers are clearly “biodiversity” and “desertification”

So, the answers are:

13. Desertification

This is the end of the post.

Cam 7, Test 1, Reading Pas 2

AThe history of human civilization is entwined with the history of ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today. Lịch sử của nền văn minh con người gắn chặt với lịch sử các cách thức mà chúng ta đã biết để vận dụng tài nguyên nước. Khi dân cư dần dần mở rộng, con người phải lấy nước từ các nguồn ngày càng xa, dẫn đến các nỗ lực kỹ thuật phức tạp như xây đập và cống dẫn nước. Ở đỉnh cao của đế chế La Mã, chín hệ thống lớn, với một bố trí sáng tạo của ống cống được xây dựng khá tốt, đã cung cấp cho mỗi cư dân Rome lượng nước giống như lượng nước cung cấp cho mỗi người ở nhiều nơi trong thế giới công nghiệp ngày nay.

   

BDuring the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unprecedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation system that makes possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food. Nearly one-fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water. Trong cuộc cách mạng công nghiệp và sự bùng nổ dân số của thế kỷ 19 và 20, nhu cầu về nước tăng lên đáng kể. Việc xây dựng chưa từng có với hàng chục ngàn dự án kỹ thuật hoành tráng được thiết kế để kiểm soát lũ lụt, bảo vệ nguồn nước sạch, và cung cấp nước cho thủy lợi và thủy điện đã mang lại nhiều lợi ích cho hàng trăm triệu người. Sản xuất lương thực đã theo kịp với các việc dân số tăng cao chủ yếu là do việc mở rộng các hệ thống thủy lợi nhân tạo để có thể tăng sản lượng lương thực thế giới lên 40%. Gần một phần năm tất cả nguồn điện được tạo ra trên toàn thế giới được sản xuất bởi các tua bin quay bằng sức mạnh của nước.

   

CYet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population till suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve their problems.

   

DThe consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in part of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions. Hậu quả của chính sách về nước của chúng ta đã lan rộng đến mức gây nguy hiểm cho sức khỏe con người. Hàng chục triệu người đã bị buộc phải di dời khỏi nhà của họ – thường chỉ được địa phương cảnh báo hoặc bồi thường qua loa – để nhường chỗ cho các hồ chứa đằng sau đập. Hơn 20% của tất cả các loài cá nước ngọt đang bị đe dọa vì đập và việc xả nước đã phá hủy hệ sinh thái sông “có dòng chảy tự do” nơi mà các loài này đang sinh sống. Một số tập quán tưới tiêu làm suy giảm chất lượng đất và làm giảm năng suất nông nghiệp. Các tầng chứa nước ngầm đang được khai thác nhanh hơn lượng bổ sung tự nhiên ở một số nơi như Ấn Độ, Trung Quốc, Mỹ và các nơi khác. Và tranh chấp về tài nguyên nước dùng chung đã dẫn đến bạo lực và tiếp tục tạo ra những căng thẳng ở địa phương, quốc gia và thậm chí quốc tế.

   

EAt the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as a top priority – ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organizations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pressing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from preventable water-related illness.

   

FFortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted. As a result, the pressure to build now water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen. May mắn thay và bất ngờ là nhu cầu về nước không tăng nhanh như một số dự đoán. Kết quả là, áp lực để xây dựng các cơ sở hạ tầng về nước đã giảm trong hai thập kỷ qua. Mặc dù dân số, sản lượng công nghiệp và năng suất kinh tế vẫn tiếp tục tăng cao ở các nước phát triển, tỷ lệ mà mọi người rút nước từ các hồ chứa nước, sông và hồ đã chậm lại. Và ở vài nơi trên thế giới, nhu cầu này đã thực sự giảm.

   

GWhat explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons* of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) – almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20% from their peak in 1980. Điều gì giải thích về sự thay đổi đáng ghi nhận này? Có hai yếu tố là con người đã tìm ra cách để sử dụng nước hiệu quả hơn, và cộng đồng đang suy nghĩ lại về ưu tiên của họ khi sử dụng nước. Trong suốt ba phần tư đầu tiên của thế kỷ 20, lượng nước ngọt được tiêu thụ trên đầu người trung bình tăng gấp đôi; như ở Mỹ, lượng rút ​​nước tăng gấp mười lần, trong khi dân số tăng gấp bốn lần. Nhưng kể từ năm 1980, lượng nước tiêu thụ mỗi người đã thực sự giảm, nhờ vào một loạt các công nghệ mới giúp tiết kiệm nước tại nhà và tại các xưởng công nghiệp. Ví dụ năm 1965 Nhật Bản sử dụng khoảng 13 triệu gallons nước sản xuất 1 triệu đô sản lượng thương mại; năm 1989 lượng tiêu thụ này đã giảm xuống còn 3,5 triệu gallon (thậm chí hơn do lạm phát) – khoảng bốn lần lượng nước tiêu thụ năm 1965. Ở Mỹ, lượng ​​nước tiêu thụ đã giảm hơn 20% so với mức đỉnh vào năm 1980.

   

HOn the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget. Mặt khác, các đập, cống dẫn nước và các loại cơ sở hạ tầng khác sẽ vẫn phải được xây dựng, đặc biệt là ở các nước đang phát triển, nơi nhu cầu cơ bản của con người đã không được đáp ứng. Nhưng các dự án như vậy phải được xây dựng hiện đại và có trách nhiệm hơn với người dân địa phương và môi trường của họ so với trong quá khứ. Và ngay cả trong các khu vực có các dự án mới có vẻ đảm bảo này thì chúng ta vẫn phải tìm cách để đáp ứng nhu cầu với ít nguồn lực hơn, tôn trọng các tiêu chuẩn sinh thái và với ngân sách ít hơn.

Ielts Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below.

The Lumière Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1985. Before the eyes of the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and moved across a flat-screen.

So ordinary and routine has this become to us that it takes a determined leap of imagination to grasp the impact of those first moving images. But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.

Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of films became familiar, the magic was accepted- but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audience and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence of time, while time in a novel passed at the whim of the reader. But in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.

One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For cinema makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived. Overwhelmingly, the lives recorded at least in film fiction- have been American. From the earliest days of the industry, Hollywood has dominated the world film market. American imagery-the cars, the cities, the cowboys became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.

And, thanks to film, future generations will know the 20-th century more intimately than any other period. We can only imagine what life was like in the 14th century or in classical Rome. But the life of the modern world has been recorded on film in massive encyclopedic detail. We shall be known better than any preceding generations.

The ‘star’ was another natural consequence of cinema. The cinema star was effectively born in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than we do ourselves. The star as a magnified human self is one of cinema’s most strange and enduring legacies.

Cinema has also given a new lease of life to the idea of the story. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground attraction.

Cinema might, for example, have become primarily a documentary form. Or it might have developed like television -as a strange noisy transfer of music, information and narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories- early producers doubted the ability of audiences to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in 1912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled upon the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.

Questions 1-5

Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

1 the location of the first cinema 2 how cinema come to focus on stories 3 the speed with which cinema has changed 4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in films

Questions 6-9

Do the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I? In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:

YES NO NOT GIVEN

if the statement agrees with the views of the writer if the statement contradicts with the views of the writer if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema. 7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode. 8 Cinema presents a bias0d view of other countries. 9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

And it has all happened so quickly. Almost unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the audience screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and, perhaps, suddenly aware that the world could never be the same again -that, maybe, it could be better, brighter, more astonishing, more real than reality.Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.1 the location of the first cinema2 how cinema come to focus on stories3 the speed with which cinema has changed4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in filmsDo the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I?In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:if the statement agrees with the views of the writerif the statement contradicts with the views of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode.8 Cinema presents a bias0d view of other countries.9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

Questions I0-13

Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrate

The simplicity of early films B the impact of early films C how short early films were Dhow imaginative early films were

11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at it

A aims to impress its audience  B tells stories better than books C illustrates t11e passing of t me D describes familiar events

12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11at Ait would always tell toes Bit s11ould be used in fairgrounds Cits audiences were unappreciative Dits future was uncertain

13 what is the best title for the passage?

A The rise of the cinema star B Cinema and novels compared C The dominant of Hollywood D The power of the big screen

Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

Motivating Employees under Adverse ConditionTHE CHALLENGE

It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organization than a declining one. When organizations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay raises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organization create Slings of optimism. Management is able to ta use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose- those with me the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.

Morale also surfers during the decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumors and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly divided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.

KEY POINT ONE

There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there are independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety, and responsibility.

KEY POINT TWO

KEY POINT THREE

Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management’s perceptions of the employee’s ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.

KEY POINT FOUR

Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope, and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision-making.

KEY POINT FIVE

KEY POINT SIX

Questions 14-18

Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points. Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.

i Ensure the reward system is fair ii Match rewords lo individuals iii Ensure targets ore realistically iv Link rewords to achievement v Encourage managers to take more responsibility vi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedback viii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs

14 Koy Point Two 15 Koy Point Three 16 Kay Point FoLir 17 Key Point Five 18 Key Point Six

Questions 19-24

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:

YES NO NOT GIVEN

if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writer if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilled employees. 20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business. 21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork. 22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting. 23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees. 24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

Questions 25-27

Look at the following groups of workers (Question2S-27) and the list of descriptions below.

Match ec1chgroup with the correct description, A -E Write the correct letter, A-Ein boxes 25-27 on your answer sheet

25 high achievers

26 clerical workers

27 product on workers

List of descriptions

A They judge promotion to bo important

B They have less need for external goats

C They think that the quality of their work is important 

D They resist goals which are imposed

E Thay have limited job options

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill

In government laboratories and elsewhere, scientists are seeking a drug able to prolong

life and youthful vigor. Studies of caloric restriction are showing the way

As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging- the build-up of molecular and cellular damage that increases vulnerability to infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. Those findings suggest that caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.

Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping from 2,500 calories a day to 1, 750. Few mortals could stick to chat harsh a regimen, especially for years on end. But what if someone could create a pill that mimicked the physiological effects of eating less without actually forcing people to eat less? Could such a ‘caloric-restriction mimetic’, as we call it, enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and cancer) until very lace in life? Scientists first posed this question in the mid-1990s, after researchers came upon a chemical agent that in rodents seemed to reproduce many of caloric restriction’s benefits. No compound that would safely achieve the same feat in people has been found yet, but the search has been informative and has fanned the hope that caloric-restriction (CR) mimetics can indeed be developed eventually.

The benefits of caloric restriction

The hunt for CR mimetics grew out of a desire to better understand caloric restriction’s many effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the practice more than 60 years ago, when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats and also had a reduced incidence of conditions that become increasingly common in old age. What is more, some of the treated animals survived longer than the oldest-living animals in the control group, which means that the maximum lifespan (the oldest attainable age), not merely the normal lifespan, increased. Various interventions, such as infection-fighting drugs, can increase a population’s average survival time, but only approaches chat slowly the body’s rate of aging will increase the maximum lifespan.

The rat findings have been replicated many times and extended to creatures ranging from yeast to fruit flies, worms, fish, spiders, mice, and hamsters. Until fairly recently, the studies were limited short-lived creatures genetically distant from humans. But caloric-restriction projects underway in two species more closely related to humans- rhesus and squirrel monkeys- have scientists optimistic that CR mimetics could help people.

calorie: a measure of the energy value of food.

The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals that eat normally. caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones that tend to fall with age.

The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels(signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease) and they have more normal blood glucose levels( pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes, which is marked by unusually high blood glucose levels). Further, it has recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-restricted diets for an extended time( nearly 15 years) have a less chronic disease. They and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespans in monkeys. Unlike the multitude of elixirs being touted as the latest anti-aging cure, CR mimetics would alter fundamental processes that underlie aging. We aim to develop compounds that fool cells into activating maintenance and repair.

How a prototype caloric-restriction mimetic works

The best-studied candidate for a caloric-restriction mimetic, 2DG (2-deoxy-D-glucose), works by interfering with the way cells process glucose, it has proved toxic at some doses in animals and so cannot be used in humans. But it has demonstrated that chemicals can replicate the effects of caloric restriction; the trick is finding the right one.

Cells use glucose from food to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the molecule that powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake, caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases ATP generation. When 2DG is administered to animals that eat normally, glucose reaches cells in abundance but the drug prevents most of it from being processed and thus reduces ATP synthesis. Researchers have proposed several explanations for why interruption of glucose processing and ATP production might retard aging. One possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery’s emission of free radicals, which are thought to contribute to aging and t such age-related diseases as cancer by damaging cells. Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage. Another hypothesis suggests that decreased processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce( even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes preservation of the organism over such ‘luxuries’ as growth and reproduction.

Questions 28-32

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? 

Inboxes 28-32  on your answer sheet, write

YES

NO

NOT GIVEN

if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

if the statement contradicts the clo1ms of the writer

if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

28 Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.

29 There is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.  

30 Not many people are likely to find a caloric-restricted diet attractive.

31Diet-related diseases ore is common in older people.

32Inexperiments.rots who ote what they wonted led shorter lives than rots on a low-calorie diet

Questions 33-37

Classify the following descriptions os relating to

A colone-restricted n1onkeys

B controls on keys

C neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys

33 Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic.

34 Monkeys experienced more chronic disease.

35 Monkeys l1ove been shown to experience o longer than overage life span. 

36 Monkeys enjoyed o reduced chance of heart disease.

37 Monkeys produced greater quantities of insulin.

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

1. A

2. I

3. J

4. E

5. G

6. yes

7. not given

8. not given

9. no

10. B

11. C

12. D

13. D

Question 1-5: 

1. A (the whole para: ―The Lumiere Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at l4 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1895. Before the eyes oi the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and 

moved across a flat screen‖) 

2. I (line 5-14: ―narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in I912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.‖) 

3. J (line 2-9: ―unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and perhaps, aware that the world never same again — that, maybe, it could be better brighter more astonishing, more real than reality‖) 

4. E (first 6 lines: ―One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For the cinema it makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked lived‖) 

5. G (lines 3-8: ―bon in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than do ourselves‖) 

Question 6-9: 

6. YES (para D, line 1-9: ―Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of the film became familiar, the magic was accepted – but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audiences and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which 

cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events‖) 

7. NOT GIVEN 

8. NOT GIVEN 

9. NO (para I, line 7-11: ―Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces 

doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel.‖) 

Question 10-13: 

10. B (para C, line 9-17: ―the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ‘Panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when Cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture. Pictures were still, only reality move; this must, therefore, be a reality. In their confusion, they 

feared that a real train about to crush them.‖) 

11. C (para D, line 7-13: ―world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence oi time, while time in a novel passed at the whim oi the reader. But in 

cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.‖) 

12. D (para H, last 4 lines: ―movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn 

off, the cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground 

attraction‖) 

13. D 

Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

14. 7

15. 3

16. 2

17. 4

18. 1

19. no

20. not given

21. no

22. yes

23. not given

24. yes

25. B

26. C

27. A

Question 14-18: 

14. vii (KEY POINT TWO, first 2 lines: ―The literature in goal-setting theory suggests that 

how well they are doing in those goals‖) 

15. iii (KEY POINT THREE, last 3 lines: ―Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees 

feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability oi doing the job and must regard the appraisal 

the process as valid‖) 

16. ii (KEY POINT FOUR, first 3 lines: ―Since employees have different needs, what acts as 

a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge oi each 

employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control.‖) 

17. iv (KEY POINT FIVE, first 2 lines: ―Managers need to make rewards contingent on 

performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other 

factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and‖) 

18. i (KEY POINT SIX, first 2 lines: ―The way rewards are distributed should be transparent 

so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs 

given. On a simplistic level‖) 

Question 19-24:

19. NO (THE CHALLENGE, part 1, last 4 lines: ―employees. When an organization is 

shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose – those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are 

limited‖) 

20. NOT GIVEN 

21. NO (KEY POINT ONE, line 3-6: ―autonomous unit within a larger business, high 

achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need or power and a low need for affiliation should be selected Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that 

are inconsistent with their needs‖) 

22. YES (KEY POINT TWO, last 3 lines: ―the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If 

participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the 

participation process as manipulative and l be negatively affected by it.‖) 

23. NOT GIVEN 

24. YES (KEY POINT FIVE, line 4-5: ―goals. Consistent with maximizing the impact oi 

rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the 

the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating‖) 

Question 25-27: 

25. B (KEY POINT TWO, line 3-4: ―those with high achievement needs, typically a minority 

in any organization, the existence of external goals is less important because high 

achievers are already internally motivated.‖) 

26. C (KEY POINT SIX, line 7-9: ―production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and 

outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

workers’ list‖) 

27. A (KEY POINT SIX, line 9-11: ―their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

workers’ list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were 

quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks‖) 

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

28. no

29. yes

30. yes

31. not given 

32. yes

33. A

34. B

35. C

36. A

37. B

38. glucose

39. free radicals

40. preservation

Question 28-32: 

28. NO (para 1, first 2 lines: ―As researchers on aging noted recently. no treatment on the 

market today has been proved to slow human aging – the build-up of molecular and 

cellular damage that increases vulnerability to‖) 

29. YES (para 1, last 4 lines: ―infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption 

of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. These findings suggest that 

the caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.‖) 

30. YES (para 2, first 2 lines: ―Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably 

have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping 

2.500 calories a day to 1,750.‖) 

31. NOT GIVEN 

32. YES (para 3, line 2-3: ―effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the 

practice more than 60 years ago. when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived 

longer on average than free-feeding rats.‖) 

Question33-37:

33. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of 

risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which is 

marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

34. B (para 5, line 5-6: ―recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-

diets for an extended time (nearly 15 years) have less chronic disease‖) 

35. C 

36. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators 

risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure 

triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they 

more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which 

marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

37. B (para 4: ―The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals 

eat normally, caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones 

tend to fall with age.‖) 

Question 38-40:

38. ‘glucose’ (para 7, line 2-3: ―powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake 

caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases 

generation.‖) 

39. ‘free radicals’ (para 7,line 7-8: ―One possibility relates to the ATP-making 

emission of free radicals, which are thought to continue to aging and to such age-

diseases as cancer by damaging cells‖) 

40. “preservation’ (para 7, last 3 lines: ―damage. Another hypothesis suggests that 

processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce (even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes preservation of 

organism over such ‗luxuries’ as growth and reproduction‖) 

Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D.Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrateThe simplicity of early filmsB the impact of early filmsC how short early films wereDhow imaginative early films were11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at itA aims to impress its audienceB tells stories better than booksC illustrates t11e passing of t meD describes familiar events12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11atAit would always tell toesBit s11ould be used in fairgroundsCits audiences were unappreciativeDits future was uncertain13 what is the best title for the passage?A The rise of the cinema starB Cinema and novels comparedC The dominant of HollywoodD The power of the big screenQuestions 14-18Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points.Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below.Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.i Ensure the reward system is fairii Match rewords lo individualsiii Ensure targets ore realisticallyiv Link rewords to achievementv Encourage managers to take more responsibilityvi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedbackviii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs14 Koy Point Two15 Koy Point Three16 Kay Point FoLir17 Key Point Five18 Key Point SixDo the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writerif the statement contradicts the claims of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilledemployees.20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business.21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork.22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

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