Bạn đang xem bài viết Answers For Venus In Transit được cập nhật mới nhất tháng 9 năm 2023 trên website Acevn.edu.vn. Hy vọng những thông tin mà chúng tôi đã chia sẻ là hữu ích với bạn. Nếu nội dung hay, ý nghĩa bạn hãy chia sẻ với bạn bè của mình và luôn theo dõi, ủng hộ chúng tôi để cập nhật những thông tin mới nhất.Venus in transit
June 2004 saw the first passage, known as a ‘transit’, of the planet Venus across the face of the Sun in 122 years. Transits have helped shape our view of the whole Universe, as Heather Cooper and Nigel Henbest explain
On 8 June 2004, more than half the population of the world were treated to a rare astronomical event. For over six hours, the planet Venus steadily inched its way over the surface of the Sun. This ‘transit’ of Venus was the first since 6 December 1882. On that occasion, the American astronomer Professor Simon Newcomb led a party to South Africa to observe the event. They were based at a girls’ school, where – it is alleged – the combined forces of three schoolmistresses outperformed the professionals with the accuracy of their observations.
For centuries, transits of Venus have drawn explorers and astronomers alike to the four corners of the globe. And you can put it all down to the extraordinary polymath Edmond Halley. In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet, Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific. He realised that, from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun’s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun. This distance is known as the astronomical unit’ or AU.
Halley was aware that the AU was one of the most fundamental of all astronomical measurements. Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sun governed their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable. But no-one had found a way to calculate accurate distances to the planets from the Earth. The goal was to measure the AU; then, knowing the orbital speeds of all the other planets round the Sun, the scale of the Solar System would fall into place. However, Halley realised that Mercury was so far away that its parallax angle would be very difficult to determine. As Venus was closer to the Earth, its parallax angle would be larger, and Halley worked out that by using Venus it would be possible to measure the Suns distance to 1 part in 500. But there was a problem: transits of Venus, unlike those of Mercury, are rare, occurring in pairs roughly eight years apart every hundred or so years. Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn’t survive to see either.
Inspired by Halley’s suggestion of a way to pin down the scale of the Solar System, teams of British and French astronomers set out on expeditions to places as diverse as India and Siberia. But things weren’t helped by Britain and France being at war. The person who deserves most sympathy is the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil.
He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship’s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations. Undaunted, he remained south of the equator, keeping himself busy by studying the islands of Mauritius and Madagascar before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.
While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. This is due to diffraction of light. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun’s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.
But astronomers laboured hard to analyse the results of these expeditions to observe Venus transits. Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today’s value of 149,597,870 km, determined by radar, which has now superseded transits and all other methods in accuracy. The AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today. The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six months later. Knowing the width of Earth’s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.
June 2004’s transit of Venus was thus more of an astronomical spectacle than a scientifically important event. But such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.
Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 9, Test 2: Reading Passage 2; Venus In Transit; With Best Solutions And Detailed Explanations
IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 9, Test 2: Reading Passage 2; Venus in transit; with best solutions and detailed explanations
This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 9 Test 2 Reading Passage 2 which is entitled ‘Venus in transit‘ . This is a post for candidates who have major problems in finding Reading Answers. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a slow process and I sincerely hope this post can assist you in your IELTS Reading preparation.Reading Passage 2: The headline of the passage: Venus in transit
Questions 14-17 (Identifying information):
[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]
Question 14: examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied
Keywords for the question: different ways, parallax principle, applied,
The first lines of paragraph F indicates that the parallax principle has been applied in several ways using different measurements. “But astronomers labored hard to analyse the results of these expeditions to observe Venus transits. Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements.”
Here, determined a value . . .. . all these parallax measurements = different ways …. Parallax principle ….applied,
Question 15: a description of an event which prevented a transit observation
Keywords for the question: event, prevented, transit observation,
Take a look at the very last line of paragraph D, “Ironically, after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”
Here, his view was clouded out at the last moment = the event which prevented the observation,
Question 16: a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations
Keywords for the question: potential future discoveries, transit observations,
TIPS: It is generally observed in IELTS exam that any statement indicating “future” is mostly found in the last paragraphs. So, when you are asked to look for ‘future’, go straight to the last paragraph.
In paragraph G, the last lines give us the answer, “. . . But such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”
Here, paved the way for = leading on from, might prove to be = future, breakthroughs = discoveries,
Question 17: a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome
Keywords for the question: physical states, connected, Venus, early astronomical instruments, failed,
The last lines of paragraph E indicate the answer for us. “.. .. . . this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”
Here, made it impossible to obtain = failed to overcome
Questions 18-21: (Matching statements with correct person or people):
(The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the keywords and read around different names of people or person carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order. )
Question 18: He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.
Keywords for this question: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy,
In paragraph F, the writer says in lines 2-5, “. … . . Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today’s value of 149,597,870 km. . .. ..”
AU (Astronomical Unit) = distance of the Earth from the Sun (in paragraph B)
Here, a fair degree of accuracy = Reasonably accurate,
So, the answer is: D (Johann Franz Encke)
Question 19: He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.
Keywords for this question: distance, worked out by comparing observations,
In paragraph B we find how Edmund Halley realised the observation of a transit could help find out the distance between the Earth and the Sun, “He realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun’s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”
So, the answer is: A (Edmund Halley)
Question 20: He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.
Keywords for this question: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun,
Paragraph C talks about Johannes Kepler’s realisation about timing of the orbit done by a planet around the Sun. Here, the writer says, “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sun governed their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”
So, the answer is: B (Johannes Kepler)
Question 21: He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.
Keywords for this question: Venus transit, unable, make calculations,
In lines 4-6 of paragraph D, the writer sympathizes Guillaume Le Gentil which indicates that he was unable to do something, “. . .. . The person who deserves most sympathy is the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil.” Then follow the last lines, ” .. . Ironically, after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”
Questions 22-26 (TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN)
So, the answer is: C (Guillaume Le Gentil)
In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:
The statement in the question agrees with the information in the passage – The statement in the question contradicts with the information in the passage – If there is no information on this – NOT GIVEN
[For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]
Question 22: Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.
Keywords for this question: Halley, observed, transit, Venus,
In the last few lines of paragraph C, the writer says, “. . .and Halley worked out that by using Venus it would be possible to measure the Sun’s distance to 1 part in 500. But there was a problem: transits of Venus, unlike those of Mercury, are rare, occurring in pairs roughly eight years apart every hundred or so years. Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn’t survive to see either.“
These lines suggest that Halley predicted the transits of Venus but he was not able to observe any transit because he died before that.
Question 23: Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.
Keywords for this question: Le Gentil, observe, second Venus transit,
In paragraph D, the writer states in lines 8-11, “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”
Here, his view was clouded out = he could not observe the transit,
The lines suggest that Le Gentil was not able to observe a second Venus transit in the Philippines due to the thickness of the cloud.
Question 24: The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.
Keywords for this question: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun,
In paragraph E, take a look at lines 1-3, “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”
Here, pass in front of the Sun = cross the Sun’s disc, distorted = smeared not circular
Question 25: Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.
Keywords for this question: early astronomers, suspected, atmosphere on Venus, toxic,
There is no information in this passage about the atmosphere of Venus.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question 26: The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.
Keywords for this question: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth,
In paragraph F, take a look at lines 7-10, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth’s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”
Making Every Drop Count
A - A description of ancient water supplies
The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.
B - How a global challenge was met
During the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unprecedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40 % of the world’s food. Nearly one fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water.
C - The relevance to health
Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.
D - Environmental effects
The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20 % of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.
*underground stores of water
E - Scientists’ call for a revision of policy
At the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organisations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pressing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from preventable water-related illness.
F - A surprising downward trend in demand for water
Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted. As a result, the pressure to build new water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen.
G - An explanation for reduced water use
What explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons* of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) – almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20 % from their peak in 1980.
H - The need to raise standards
On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to a smaller budget.
* 1 gallon: 4.546 litres
Xin Visa Quá Cảnh Đi Romania Khẩn, Hồ Sơ Xin Visa Transit Vào Romania, Làm Visa Transit Romania Nhanh Chóng, Uy Tín
Xin Visa quá cảnh đi Romania khẩn, Hồ sơ xin visa transit vào Romania, Làm Visa Transit Romania nhanh chóng, uy tín
Nói chung, một công dân nước ngoài muốn vào Romania trước tiên phải có visa, hoặc là một thị thực không di dân để tạm trú, hoặc thị thực nhập cư cho thường trú.Thủ tục hồ sơ xin visa quá cảnh Romania – Thị thực transit quá cảnh ở Romania
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4/ Viet Green Visa làm việc theo ĐÚNG CHUẨN QUY TRÌNH TƯ VẤN VÀ THỰC HIỆN DỊCH VỤ VISA đi nước ngoài cho Quý khách một cách chuyên nghiệp – minh bạch – uy tín
Với cấu trúc được chọn lọc và thiết kế khoa học, quyển sách chính là tài liệu hữu ích giúp người học mở rộng vốn từ vựng cũng như hỗ trợ phát triển những kỹ năng cần thiết trong quá trình chinh phục IELTS.
Tổng quan về sách
Bao gồm tất cả các từ vựng cần thiết cho bài kiểm tra IELTS với thực hành bài kiểm tra của tất cả các bài.
Được thông báo bởi Cambridge International Corpus, bao gồm cả Cambridge Learner Corpus đảm bảo vốn từ vựng được trình bày trong ngữ cảnh chân thực và bao gồm các lỗi mà các sĩ tử luyện thi IELTS thường mắc phải.
Cảnh báo lỗi phổ biến của người học giúp sinh viên nhận thức và tránh mắc phải những lỗi phổ biến.
Kiểm tra tiến bộ thường xuyên cho phép sinh viên củng cố việc học và lập biểu đồ tiến bộ của họ.
Lời khuyên về cách tiếp cận các nhiệm vụ IELTS thực hành trong sách và cách học từ vựng là lý tưởng cho sinh viên tự học.
Danh sách từ trong phần phụ lục cung cấp một danh sách kiểm tra và tài nguyên sửa đổi hữu ích cho sinh viên.
Sử dụng sách Cambridge Vocabulary for IELTS như thế nào cho hiệu quả?
Để đạt hiệu quả cao khi học sách, tốt nhất bạn nên đọc kỹ trước 5 chương phụ lục của sách. Các chương sách bổ sung này sẽ hướng dẫn chi tiết những bước giúp bạn học từ vựng đúng cách và nâng cao khả năng Nghe – Hiểu thông qua học từ vựng.
Song song đó bạn có thể tham gia vào các group học, hỏi giáo viên hoặc những bạn cùng ôn thi IELTS để nhận được sự giúp đỡ kịp thời. Làm đúng những bước này bạn đã đi 50% chặng đường ôn luyện. Phần còn lại sẽ phụ thuộc sự cố gắng và kiên trì của bản thân bạn. Hãy viết xuống cho bản thân mục tiêu học rõ ràng. Đặt ra mục tiêu một tuần phải hoàn thành được ít nhất 2 chương sách. Kiên trì và thực hiện đều đặn, bạn sẽ sớm gặt hái được nhiều thành quả rực rỡ từ quyển sách này.
Với cuốn sách Cambridge Vocabulary for IELTS, những người đang có mong muốn cải thiện vốn từ vựng tiếng Anh học thuật sẽ tìm được cho mình những hướng dẫn học từ vựng chi tiết và đầy đủ.
1 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Unit 1 1. I would like to stay in the Ice Hotel. I think it is The Ice Hotel a unique place. 2. The most unusual place that I have heard of Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) is this Ice Hotel. 1. It is winter in the photo. I know that because I 3. An interesting place I have visited is Bangkok can see a lot of ice. in Thailand. I saw many amazing palaces and 2. I think this hotel must be in a cold place. temples there. 3. I think this hotel is special because it is made of ice. Grammar Are you into skiing? Vocabulary Preview Of course, all of these hotels are made of ice. 1. c 2. f 3. b 4. e 5. d 6. a Vocabulary and Idiom Review Reading Comprehension 1. b 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. b 1. b 2. d 3. c 4. b 5. b 6. a 7. d 8. b 9. c 10. b Idiomatic Expressions 1. check in 2. am into 3. made (out) of Summary 1. unique 2. freezing 3. Surprisingly 4. fantastic 5. cozy Listening 1. d 2. d 3. b Discussion ( answers will vary). 1 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 3.
2 The first sandwich was made with bread and Unit 2 meat. Food Firsts Discussion ( answers will vary). Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) 1. My favorite foods from other countries are 1. My favorite food is Cajun chicken salad. Tom Yang soup and fried noodles. Tom Yang 2. The most unusual food I have eaten is fried soup is from Thailand and fried noodles are from insects. Hong Kong. 3. I can cook many kinds of dishes, from 2. Some traditional foods from Canada are spaghetti to steak. barbequed salmon and steak. 3. One untrue story people believe is that Vocabulary Preview spaghetti was first made in Italy. In fact, noodles 1. f 2. c 3. b 4. a 5. e 6. d were first made in China. Reading Comprehension Grammar 1. d 2. b 3. a 4. d 5. b Cooks of wealthy English families during the time of Richard I were making curry dishes. Idiomatic Expressions The Persians were eating round, flat bread with 1. Dig in cheese in the 500s. 2. find out 3. catching on Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. d 2. d 3.
3 C 4. a 5. d Summary 6. d 7. b 8. a 9. c 10. b 1. 1377 2. Wealthy 3. Created 4. 500s 5. Introduced 6. 1891. Listening 1. Mike found Janet surfing the Internet. 2. Lord Montagu was the Earl of Sandwich. 2 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. Using the letters of the alphabet, the WMO. makes a list of names that includes both male and female names. Unit 3 2. The lists are made of names that start with Hurricane Who? different letters, but the lists do not include names beginning with the letters Q, U, X, Y, and Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Z. 1. A hurricane is a big storm with high winds and 3. Asian countries name hurricanes using a list lots of rain. of words that includes flowers, animals, trees, 2. I think hurricanes usually occur along the and other similar things. coasts of continents. They always start out in the ocean. Listening 3. We usually get hurricanes in my country in the 1. [ ] True [ ] False spring and in the fall. There may be five or six 2. [ ] True [ ] False each season.
4 3. [ ] True [ ] False Vocabulary Preview Discussion ( answers will vary). 1. d 2. b 3. c 4. e 5. a 6. f 1. I think non-human names are better for cyclones. It’s more interesting that way. Reading Comprehension 2. I have never experienced a tropical cyclone. 1. c 2. c 3. c 4. d 5. b 3. Winter is the worst season in my country, and summer is the best season. Idiomatic Expressions 1. make up Grammar 2. keeps up with Tropical cyclones are called typhoons in Asia 3. keep an eye out for and hurricanes in North and South America. The World Meteorological Organization decides Summary what names will be used. (Possible answers ). Vocabulary and Idiom Review 3 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. a 5. c 3. produces 4. shut down 6. c 7. a 8. b 9. a 10. b 5. butterflies Listening 1. c 2. b 3. d Unit 4 Discussion ( answers will vary). How Did Those Get in There? 1. The last time I was nervous was during a piano performance for a contest. My body Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) reacted to my nervousness by making me go to 1.
5 When I have to speak in front of my class, I the bathroom a lot before my performance. get very nervous. 2. To reduce stress, I read comic books or listen 2. My legs are affected by this feeling. They to music. become very weak and shaky. 3. Any situation where I have to do something or 3. Related to this feeling, I think of rabbits say something in front of a lot of people gives because they always seem nervous to me. me butterflies in my stomach. Vocabulary Preview Grammar 1. f 2. a 3. b 4. e 5. d 6. c Cortisol speeds up the way the stomach works, which makes these people feel sick. Reading Comprehension Stepping out onto the stage will also help those 1. c 2. c 3. b 4. c 5. a butterflies fly away. Idiomatic Expressions Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. get rid of 1. d 2. c 3. a 4. a 5. b 2. play a role in 6. c 7. b 8. b 9. c 10. a 3. shut down Summary 1. respond 2. normal 4 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Summary 1. position 2. wake up 3. still 4. antennae 5. respond to 6. loud Listening 1.
6 An interesting thing about the New Zealand weta is that it freezes every night. Unit 5 2. The man learned that the New Zealand weta A Bug’s Sleep is related to crickets. 3. The man found out about the New Zealand Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) weta in his biology class. 1. I don’t think insects sleep. They don’t have a big enough brain to need sleep. Discussion ( answers will vary). 2. Maybe an insect is very still and quiet if it 1. I think we need sleep to rest our brains and sleeps. bodies. 3. I usually need 7-8 hours of sleep. If I don’t get 2. One experiment could be to measure enough sleep, I get angry very easily. changes in the brain activity of insects. If their brain activity changes when they are still, maybe Vocabulary Preview they are sleeping. 1. a 2. c 3. d 4. e 5. f 6. b 3. I know that insects have no bones or lungs. Reading Comprehension Grammar 1. c 2. d 3. c 4. c 5. a Additionally, they don’t wake up easily when hearing noises or seeing light. Idiomatic Expressions However, they start to move around when louder 1.
7 Come out of noised are made. 2. moves around 3. For example Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. c 2. a 3. b 4. d 5. c 5 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 6. b 7. b 8. b 9. a 10. b Summary (Possible answers ). 1. Tiger won the World Golf Championships before he turned 25, setting the record as the youngest player to ever win all four championships. 2. Tiger wants to help others who can’t play golf because he was helped by so many people as a child. Unit 6 3. Tiger created the Tiger Woods Foundation so Tiger’s Tale that golf would be open to everyone. Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Listening 1. Jack Nicklaus is a famous golfer. 1. [ ] True [ ] False 2. The special thing about Tiger Woods is that 2. [ ] True [ ] False he is very young, but successful. 3. [ ] True [ ] False 3. A role model is someone who I want to act like. Discussion ( answers will vary). 1. I don’t like to play golf. I think it is a little Vocabulary Preview boring. 1. a 2. b 3. e 4. c 5. f 6. d 2. I enjoy playing badminton or basketball.
8 3. If I had lots of money, I would give some to Reading Comprehension my family, give some to charity, and put the rest 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. c 5. c in the bank. Idiomatic Expressions Grammar 1. lend, a hand Tiger Woods started playing golf professionally 2. holds the record for in 1996. 3. looks up to Because many people helped Tiger as a child, he wants to lend a hand to others now. 6 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. on a daily basis Vocabulary and Idiom Review 2. agree with 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. c 3. set up 6. d 7. d 8. b 9. b 10. a Summary 1. set up 2. reports 3. balanced 4. responsibility 5. agrees with Listening Unit 7 1. b 2. c 3. d Not the Normal News Discussion ( answers will vary). Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) 1. I usually read news reports online. 1. One thing in the news over the past few days 2. My favorite news magazine is News Today was the death of a famous singer in my country. because its articles are easy to read. 2. The information in this article was sad and a 3.
9 I know about a television program that only little scary because the singer died from a reports entertaining stories, mostly about the medical accident. lives of movie stars. 3. One funny story that I heard recently was about some research related to pets and how Grammar pets can control their owners. Newspapers always seem to report about the bad things happening in society. Vocabulary Preview HappyNews gets fan mail from its readers on a 1. f 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. b daily basis. Reading Comprehension Vocabulary and Idiom Review 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. a 1. a 2. b 3. d 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. c 9. b 10. b Idiomatic Expressions 7 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key Summary 1. finishes 2. start up 3. perfect 4. machine 5. give up 6. successfully Listening 1. The speaker says that the older brother flew in the Wright Flyer. 2. The distance that the Wright Flyer went was 51 meters. Unit 8 3. That is about the distance from the front of the The Wright Way to Fly plane to the back. Pre- Reading ( answers will vary) Discussion ( answers will vary).
10 1. I think that the Wright brothers made the first 1. Thomas Edison is also a famous inventor. airplane. They are famous because they flew. 2. My father enjoys making things. He likes to 2. The Wright brothers were from the US. make furniture. 3. I think they lived about 100 years ago. 3. I last flew in an airplane last summer. I visited my family in New Zealand. Vocabulary Preview 1. f 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. a Grammar Instead of sitting in class and Reading , they Reading Comprehension wanted to work and make things, like machines. 1. c 2. d 3. c 4. d 5. b Then the brothers decided to make their glider into a flying machine. Idiomatic Expressions 1. give up Vocabulary and Idiom Review 2. break down 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. a 5. a 3. start up 6. a 7. c 8. c 9. a 10. c 8 Reading Challenge 1 2nd Answer Key 1. got around 2. posing as 3. in the hands of Summary (Possible answers ). 1. Mitnick, who was sent to prison, decided to use his skills to set up a computer security firm. 2. Mitnick believes the biggest danger to security these days is the people using the programs.
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