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Venus in transit
June 2004 saw the first passage, known as a ‘transit’, of the planet Venus across the face of the Sun in 122 years. Transits have helped shape our view of the whole Universe, as Heather Cooper and Nigel Henbest explain
On 8 June 2004, more than half the population of the world were treated to a rare astronomical event. For over six hours, the planet Venus steadily inched its way over the surface of the Sun. This ‘transit’ of Venus was the first since 6 December 1882. On that occasion, the American astronomer Professor Simon Newcomb led a party to South Africa to observe the event. They were based at a girls’ school, where – it is alleged – the combined forces of three schoolmistresses outperformed the professionals with the accuracy of their observations.
For centuries, transits of Venus have drawn explorers and astronomers alike to the four corners of the globe. And you can put it all down to the extraordinary polymath Edmond Halley. In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet, Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific. He realised that, from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun’s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun. This distance is known as the astronomical unit’ or AU.
Halley was aware that the AU was one of the most fundamental of all astronomical measurements. Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sun governed their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable. But no-one had found a way to calculate accurate distances to the planets from the Earth. The goal was to measure the AU; then, knowing the orbital speeds of all the other planets round the Sun, the scale of the Solar System would fall into place. However, Halley realised that Mercury was so far away that its parallax angle would be very difficult to determine. As Venus was closer to the Earth, its parallax angle would be larger, and Halley worked out that by using Venus it would be possible to measure the Suns distance to 1 part in 500. But there was a problem: transits of Venus, unlike those of Mercury, are rare, occurring in pairs roughly eight years apart every hundred or so years. Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn’t survive to see either.
Inspired by Halley’s suggestion of a way to pin down the scale of the Solar System, teams of British and French astronomers set out on expeditions to places as diverse as India and Siberia. But things weren’t helped by Britain and France being at war. The person who deserves most sympathy is the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil.
He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship’s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations. Undaunted, he remained south of the equator, keeping himself busy by studying the islands of Mauritius and Madagascar before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.
While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. This is due to diffraction of light. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun’s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.
But astronomers laboured hard to analyse the results of these expeditions to observe Venus transits. Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today’s value of 149,597,870 km, determined by radar, which has now superseded transits and all other methods in accuracy. The AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today. The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six months later. Knowing the width of Earth’s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.
June 2004’s transit of Venus was thus more of an astronomical spectacle than a scientifically important event. But such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.
Xin Visa Quá Cảnh Đi Romania Khẩn, Hồ Sơ Xin Visa Transit Vào Romania, Làm Visa Transit Romania Nhanh Chóng, Uy Tín
Xin Visa quá cảnh đi Romania khẩn, Hồ sơ xin visa transit vào Romania, Làm Visa Transit Romania nhanh chóng, uy tín
Nói chung, một công dân nước ngoài muốn vào Romania trước tiên phải có visa, hoặc là một thị thực không di dân để tạm trú, hoặc thị thực nhập cư cho thường trú.
Thủ tục hồ sơ xin visa quá cảnh Romania – Thị thực transit quá cảnh ở Romania
Visa quá cảnh, visa Transit Romania là loại thị thực không di dân dành cho những người đi du lịch hoặc công tác / định cư trong quá trình di chuyển qua Romania trên đường đến một nước khác mà cần phải nghỉ giữa chừng. Tùy vào từng chuyến bay mà quý khách có thể ở trên máy bay hoặc phải đi xuống khu vực quá cảnh của sân bay. Nếu du khách có nhu cầu tạm dừng di chuyển cho các mục đích khác ngoài việc đi qua Romania, chẳng hạn như thăm bạn bè hoặc tham gia vào chuyến đi tham quan, du lịch thì bạn sẽ phải cung cấp đầy đủ các giấy tờ thị thực hợp Romania. Kinh nghiệm xin được visa dễ dàng thì Quý khách có thể liên hệ tại chúng tôi hoặc gọi 19006920 để tư vấn
Nếu bạn đã có được một visa du lịch hợp lệ vào nước thứ 3 thì bạn có thể sử dụng nó để quá cảnh Romania. Ngoài ra nếu bạn là công dân của một quốc gia có trong chương trình miễn thị thực mà Romania cho phép thì bạn sẽ được quá cảnh mà không cần có visa Romania.
TIN NÓNG CHO NGƯỜI MUỐN ĐẾN PHẦN ROMANIA DỄ DÀNG:
Các trường hợp được cấp visa quá cảnh Romania – gọi 19006920
1/ Công dân nước ngoài đi du lịch một quốc gia khác mà trong quá trình di chuyển phải tạm dừng tại 1 sân bay nào đó tại Romania .
2/ Khách hàng đi từ một cảng nước ngoài bằng một con tàu du lịch đến một cảng khác không phải là Romania nhưng trong quá trình di chuyển gặp một số vấn đề và cần phải cập cảng tại Romania
3/ Hành khách đến Romania để tham gia làm việc trên một con tàu hoặc một chiếc máy bay khác làm việc
Các trường hợp không được cấp visa quá cảnh Romania
1/ Công dân nước ngoài dừng ở Romania nhưng mục đích chính không phải là quá cảnh mà thăm bạn bè hoặc người thân cần phải có thị thực du lịch B.
2/ Một thuyền viên trên duy thuyền tư nhân đi sang nước ngoài nế đi trong vùng biển của Romania hơn 29 ngày cần phải có visa du lịch B
3/ Một quan chức hoặc nhân viên của một tổ chức quốc tế được chỉ định được giao cho Romania có thể quá cảnh Romania dựa trên thị thực của Tổ chức Quốc tế (G-4) .
Thủ tục hồ sơ xin visa quá cảnh Romania
a. Quá trình xin visa quá cảnh Romania cơ bản
Bước 1: Hoàn thành mẫu đơn xin visa ngắn hạn trực tuyến do Viet Green Visa cung cấp
Bước 2: Thanh toán lệ phí xét hồ sơ visa tại Viet Green Visa
Bước 3: Đặt lịch hẹn nộp hồ sơ và phỏng vấn tại cơ quan lãnh sự. Viet Green Visa có thể hướng dẫn Quý khách trước khi phỏng vấn
Bước 4: Đến phỏng vấn theo lịch hẹn (nếu có)
b. Những giấy tờ cần thiết
Tổng kết lại từ quy trình trên, ta thấy có những giấy tờ cần thiết sau:
– Đơn xin visa transit Romania, trong đó có mã số để cung cấp khi nộp phí (nếu có)
– Giấy chứng nhận đã nộp lệ phí, số hộ chiếu để lên lịch hẹn
– Bản in thư lịch hẹn phỏng vấn xin visa
– Hộ chiếu còn thời hạn và hộ chiếu cũ
– 2 Ảnh thẻ theo quy chuẩn thường 3,5 x 4,5 cm nền trắng (Châu Âu), Nhật (4,5×4,5cm), Mỹ (5 x 5 cm)
– Vé máy bay khứ hồi vào nước thứ 3
– Visa được cấp vào nước thứ 3
Một số lưu ý trong quá trình xin thị thực transit Romania .
Bạn phải lên lịch hẹn cho cuộc phỏng vấn xin visa tại Đại sứ quán Romania hoặc Lãnh sự quán Romania ở nước bạn sinh sống. Bạn có thể lên lịch cuộc phỏng vấn tại bất kỳ Đại sứ quán Romania nào hoặc xem xét, tuy nhiên nên tìm đến địa chỉ gần nơi sinh sống nhất để được giải quyết. Đại sứ quán toàn quyền quyết định kết quả visa transit của bản. Lưu ý hộ chiếu của đương đơn xin visa Transit Romania phải có giá trị từ 6 tháng trở lên.
III/ QUY TRÌNH THỰC HIỆN TƯ VẤN:
Giờ Quý khách sẽ không còn băn khoăn, lo lắng khi tìm đến công ty Viet Green Visa – Phòng visa Du Lịch Xanh để được tư vấn hướng dẫn bạn cách đặt lịch hẹn phỏng vấn xin visa cho quý khách đi NHANH, KHẨN CẤP hãy nhấc máy lên gọi theo số: 1900.6920 hoặc 024.36285414 / 01235 333331 / 0988.262616
Bước 1: ĐĂNG KÝ 2 CÁCH DỊCH VỤ TƯ VẤN XIN VISA Romania
Cách 1: Gọi điện thoại 1900.6920 hoặc Mobile/Zalo/Viber: 0989.313339 để đăng ký tư vấn
Cách 2: Gửi email: firstname.lastname@example.org để đăng ký tư vấn và lấy thủ tục
Bước 2: ĐÓNG PHÍ TƯ VẤN DỊCH VỤ
Chúng tôi, Viet Green Visa chỉ nhận tiền chuyển khoản vào các TÀI KHOẢN NGÂN HÀNG CỦA GIÁM ĐỐC DỊCH VỤ CỦA VIET GREEN VISA như sau:
Bước 3: TƯ VẤN DỊCH VỤ VISA TRỌN GÓI
– Tư vấn áp dụng nhiều lần không hạn chế thời gian
– Quý khách có thể chọn khung giờ tư vấn qua điện thoại hoặc chọn thời gian phù hợp để tư vấn tại Văn phòng tại Hà Nội và Hồ Chí Minh
– Dịch vụ tư vấn xin visa không bao gồm VAT, Phí nộp cho Đại sứ quán và KHÔNG hoàn lại cho bất ký trường hợp nào lý do nào của Quý khách đưa ra
1/ VIET GREEN VISA – DU LỊCH XANH CHỈ THU TIỀN DỊCH VỤ TƯ VẤN VISA TOÀN CẦU BẰNG TIỀN MẶT CÓ PHIẾU THU VÀ CHỮ KÝ XÁC NHẬN CỦA BAN GIÁM ĐỐC hoặc ƯU TIÊN CHUYỂN KHOẢN vào:
CHỦ TÀI KHOẢN: LÊ TIẾN DŨNG
SỐ TÀI KHOẢN DUY NHẤT: 0021000033333
TẠI VIETCOMBANK, CHI NHÁNH HÀ NỘI
( Anh Lê Tiến Dũng là Tổng giám đốc của Du Lịch Xanh / Viet Green Visa ) 2/ TUYỆT ĐỐI KHÔNG TRẢ TIỀN MẶT HOẶC KHÔNG CHUYỂN KHOẢN CHO BẤT KỲ NHÂN VIÊN / NGƯỜI NÀO HẾT TRONG/NGOÀI CÔNG TY CHÚNG TÔI khi chưa có ỦY QUYỀN từ Tổng giám đốc Viet Green Visa. NẾU NGƯỢC LẠI, CHÚNG TÔI KHÔNG CHỊU TRÁCH NHIỆM VỀ CHẤT LƯỢNG, KẾT QUẢ DỊCH VỤ VISA CŨNG NHƯ TIỀN BẠC CỦA QUÝ KHÁCH HÀNG. 3/ CHÚNG TÔI CAM KẾT HOÀN 100% TIỀN DỊCH VỤ, KHÔNG BAO GỒM PHÍ ĐẠI SỨ QUÁN, DỊCH THUẬT CÔNG CHỨNG. QUYỀN LỢI NÀY CHỈ ÁP DỤNG KHI QUÝ KHÁCH THỰC HIỆN ĐÚNG Ở ĐIỀU KHUYẾN CÁO SỐ 1
4/ Viet Green Visa làm việc theo ĐÚNG CHUẨN QUY TRÌNH TƯ VẤN VÀ THỰC HIỆN DỊCH VỤ VISA đi nước ngoài cho Quý khách một cách chuyên nghiệp – minh bạch – uy tín
Listening for IELTS will prepare you for the IELTS Listening test whether you are taking the test for the first time, or re-sitting the test. It has been written for learners with band score 5-5.5 who are trying to achieve band score 6 or higher.
The structured approach, comprehensive answer key and model answers have been designed so that you can use the materials to study on your own. However, the book can also be used as a supplementary listening skills course for IELTS preparation classes. The book provides enough material for approximately 50 hours of classroom activity.
Listening for IELTS is divided into 12 units. Each unit focuses on a topic area that you are likely to meet in the IELTS exam. This helps you to build up a bank of vocabulary and ideas related to a variety of topics.
Units 1-11 cover the key types of questions that you find in the IELTS Listening test. Every exercise is relevant to the test. The aims listed at the start of each unit specify the key skills, techniques and language covered in the unit. You work towards Unit 12, which provides a final practice IELTS Listening test.
Additionally, the book provides examination strategies telling you what to expect and how best to succeed in the test. The exam information is presented in clear, easy-to-read chunks. ‘Exam tips’ in each unit highlight essential exam techniques and can be rapidly reviewed at a glance.
Unit Structure :
Each of the first 11 units is divided into 3 parts.
Part 1 introduces vocabulary related to the topic. A range of exercises allows you to use the vocabulary – clearly and effectively – in a variety of contexts. These exercises also build awareness of the patterns in words and language items. The vocabulary is presented using Collins COBUILO dictionary definitions.
Part 2 provides step-by-step exercises and guidance on specific question types that appear in the test. Each unit covers one section from the test and focuses on three question types. Some explanations and examples show you how to approach each question type. Useful tips are highlighted to help you develop successful test-taking strategies.
Part 3 provides exam practice questions for the same section of the test that you did exercises for in Part 2. using the same question types. The format follows the actual exam. You can use this as a way of assessing your readiness for the actual exam.
A comprehensive answer key is provided for all sections of the book including notes on why certain answers are correct or incorrect. You will also find full audio scripts of all listening exercises at the back of the book. The answers are underlined in the audio scripts so you can see where the correct answers come in the audio.
Using the book for self-study :
If you are new to IELTS. we recommend that you work systematically through the 12 units to benefit from its progressive structure. If you are a more experienced learner, you can use the aims listed at the start of each unit to select the most useful exercises.
Ideally, you should begin each unit by working through the Part 1 vocabulary exercises. Try to answer the questions without looking at a dictionary to develop the skill of inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words from context. This is important because dictionaries cannot be used during the actual exam. Avoid writing the answers to vocabulary exercises directly into the book so that you can try the exercises again once you have completed the unit.
Work through Part 2 listening exercises from beginning to end. It is important to study the notes about each of the question types so that you become familiar with how to approach the different question types in the test. Doing this will also help you develop more general skills for listening. The strategies covered should be thoroughly mastered so that during the actual exam you are fully prepared for each section and can focus on ‘listening’. All learners, including those who are working on their own. should attempt the listening tasks as listening is a skill that can only be improved through extensive practice. At the same time, you should aim to become well-informed about a wide variety of subjects, not just those covered in the book. The IELTS Listening test can cover almost any topic considered to be within the grasp of a well-educated person. Listening regularly to English language news programmes and lectures can help with this. too.
Part 3 contains exam practice questions. After you have done the test, it is a good idea to spend some time reviewing why certain answers are the correct ones. For this reason, we suggest you approach this part in the following way.
First, do the test. Here, you focus on answering the questions correctly. You should try and complete Part 3 within the time limit set and listen only once, as this allows you to practice under exam conditions. Do not look at the audio script at the back of the book while doing the test. After you have finished listening, make sure the format and spelling of your answers are correct. Then, check your answers using the Answer key.
Then learn from the test. Here, you focus on understanding why certain answers are the correct answers. When you have checked your answers, you can listen again to try to hear any answers that you missed. Reading the audio script at the same time as listening to the recording will help you to develop your listening skills and identify answers. Remember that the answers are underlined in the audio scripts.
Unit 12 is a complete practice listening test. This unit should be done under exam conditions. You should answer all four sections consecutively and listen only once. Please also take into account the timings for the breaks within the sections. Normally, in the actual test, you would keep 10 minutes aside to transfer your answers. Please bear this in mind when doing Unit 12.
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Cambridge IELTS 6 is the latest IELTS exam preparation. chúng tôi will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 6 reading test 3 with detail explanations.
CAMBRIDGE IELTS 6 READING TEST 3 ANSWERS
Passage 1: THE POWER OF THE BIG SCREEN
Questions 1-5: Which paragraph contains the following information?
1. The location of the first cinema
Keywords: location, first cinema
In paragraph A, the writer refers to a cinema called “Cinematographe” together with its location: “at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris” as well as its early time of formation which is “on December 8, 1895”
Keywords: how, stories
In paragraph I, it is stated that “…it (refers to cinema) became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories.”
Keywords: speed, changed
The change taking place in the cinema is clearly the main idea of paragraph J: “And it has all happened so chúng tôi is a mere 100 years since……”
Keywords: teaches, cultures
In paragraph E, the writer says that: “One effect of this realism was to educate the world about chúng tôi before people travelled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places look like; they knew how other people worked and lived…”
+ to teach = to educate
How other places look like, how other people worked and lived ~ other cultures
Keywords: attraction, actors
The actor who holds attraction for audiences, or “star”, is mentioned in paragraph G: ” The „star‟ was another natural consequence of chúng tôi personalities have such an immediate presence that, inevitably, they become super-real”.
+ actors~stars~film personalities
6.It is important to understand how the first audience reacted to the cinema.
Keywords: first audience, understand, reacted.
In paragraph B, the writer says that “…But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema…”
“The initial shock of those images” refers to “how the first audience reacted to the cinema”. So the given statement agrees with the view of the writer.
+ important = worth trying
+first = initial
Keywords: Lumiere Brothers‟ film, train, greatest films
Scan the keyword in capitals “Lumiere Brothers” then find it in paragraph C: “One of the Lumiere Brothers‟ earliest films was a 30 second piece which showed a section of a railway platform flooded with sunshine.
A train appears …. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists described the film as a „work of genius‟.” The writer only says the director Andrei Tarkovsky is one of the greatest of all film artists. Only the opinion of this director is mentioned, so we are not told if this film was one of the greatest films ever made.
Keywords: a biased view, other countries
All the information about the cinema‟s presentation of other countries is in paragraph E. Because of the influence of the American film industry: “American imagery – the cars, the cities, the cowboys – became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.” Thus, we are only told that most cinema audiences watched images of American life. We do not know if the cinema presents a biased view of other countries.
Keywords: storylines, early cinema
In paragraph H, the writer mentions that: “All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement.” So movement, not storyline, was important in very early cinema.
+ in very early cinema = at first
+ important ~ mattered
10.The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate
Keywords: film of the train
In paragraph C, the film of the train, “one of the Lumiere Brothers‟ earliest films”, is described: “As the train approached, panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran chúng tôi feared that a real train was about to crush them.” So the writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate the impact of early films.
Keywords: Tarkovsky, attraction of cinema
In paragraph D: “For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image of the real flow of events….. in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.”
+ attraction = magic
It means the attraction of the cinema is that it illustrates the passing of time.
Keywords: cinema first began
In paragraph H, the writer says that: “When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. Indeed, some said that……cinema would fade away.” So when cinema first began, people thought that its future was uncertain.
The whole passage presents the introduction, development and impact of the cinema and only mentions in one or two paragraphs other topics such as stars, the comparison between cinema and novels, or the domination of Hollywood. So the best choice for its title is “The power of the big screen”.
Questions 14-18: Matching headings
14.Key Point Two
+ establish targets= setting goals
This key point shows that managers must ensure targets are realistic: “…..goals are achievable…managers must be chúng tôi employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals.”
+ achievable = realistic ~ their efforts can lead to performance goals
+ to be sure ~ to ensure
The main idea of this key point is about matching rewards to individuals: “managers could use their own knowledge of each employee to personalise the rewards over which they have control.”
+ each employee = individuals
+ personalise the rewards = match rewards to individuals
In the topic sentence of this paragraph, the writer points out that: “Managers need to make rewards contingent on performance.” This means that managers must link rewards to achievement.
+ achievement = performance
Continuing to talk about rewards, the writer states: “The way rewards are distributed should be transparent ….” then suggests a method of weighing inputs and outcomes according to employee group to make this key point feasible. So the correct heading of this key point is “ensure the reward system is fair.”
+ transparent ~ fair, so that everyone can understand clearly
19.A shrinking organization tends to lose its less skilled employees rather than its more skilled employees.
Keywords: shrinking organization, skilled employees
In the first paragraph, the writer says that: “When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. chúng tôi are the chúng tôi the highest skills and experience.” So the given statement is opposite to the writer‟s view. The more skilled employees are the most likely to leave.
Keywords: small business, large business.
Small and large businesses are mentioned in Key Point One: “For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business…..”, but there is no information about whether it is easier to manage a small business rather than a large business. Instead, the paragraph deals only with matching people to jobs.
Keywords: High achievers, team work.
In the paragraph of Key Point One, the writer says: ” chúng tôi achievers will do best … where there is independence …” So, high achievers are well suited to work independently, not to team work.
Keywords: manipulated, participate in goal-setting
Look at the paragraph of Key Point Two, in which it is said that: “If participation (in goal-setting) and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative …” So, this means that some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.
Keywords: staff appraisal process
“The staff appraisal process” is only mentioned in the paragraph of Key Point Three: “For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.” However, the writer does not say anything about whether this process should be designed by employees or not.
+ staff = employees
Keywords: earnings, disclosed
In the paragraph of Key Point Five, the writer suggests that: “Eliminating the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating everyone‟s remuneration, publicising performance bonuses chúng tôi make rewards more visible …….” So, the statement agrees with the view of the writer.
+ earnings = pay, remuneration
+ disclose = eliminate the secrecy, openly communicate, publicise
In Key Point Two, the writer states that: “For those with high achievement needs… the existence of goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated.” So high achievers have less need of external goals, because they have high internal motivation.
In Key Point Six, the writer points out: “The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list” (the list of inputs and outcomes placed in degree of importance). So they think that the quality of their work is important.
Questions 28-32: YES/NO/NOT GIVEN
28.Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.
Keywords: drugs available today
In the first sentence of the passage, the writer states: “As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging…”. It is similar to the given statement.
+drugs available ~ treatment on the market
+ delay = slow
+ the process of growing old= human aging
Keywords: scientific evidence, eating fewer calories
In the first paragraph, it is reported that: “But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health.” Furthermore, in paragraphs 4, 5 and 6, the writer describes scientists‟ experiments studying the benefits of a caloric-restricted diet for rats and monkeys. So, there is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.
+ extend human life = increasing longevity
Keywords: a caloric-restricted diet, attractive
It is stated in the second paragraph: “Few mortals could stick to that harsh a regimen….”, which means few people would like such a harsh caloric-restricted diet. So, the given statement is similar to the writer‟s view.
+ people = mortals
+ diet = regimen
Keywords: Diet-related diseases , older people.
Age-related diseases are mentioned in the second paragraph: ” Could such a caloric-restriction mimetic….enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis) …..” However, the writer does not say anything about diet-related diseases in old age.
+ disease =disorder
Keywords: experiments, rats, low-calorie diet
The experiment on rats is reported in the third and fourth paragraphs: “…they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats…” So, rats who ate what they wanted led shorter lives than rats on a low-calorie diet. rats who ate what they wanted = free-feeding rats
Neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys
The comparison between caloric-restricted monkeys and control ones (ones that eat normally) is reported in paragraphs 5 and 6. The caloric-restricted monkeys: “have lower body temperature and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin”; “have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease)….;”have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes)” and “have less chronic disease”.
33.Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic
In the sixth paragraph, the writer says: “They (refers to caloric-restricted monkeys) and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespan in monkeys.” It means that we do not yet know whether caloric-restricted monkeys experience a longer than average life span than the control monkeys.
How a caloric- restriction mimetic works
Less chúng tôi produced
Productions of ATP is decreased
Theory 1: Theory 2:
Cells less damaged by disease because fewer Cel ls focus on 40…..because food is in short supply chúng tôi emitted
38.In the last paragraph, the writer says that: “.caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells…..” This means that less glucose is produced than normal.
In which, “one possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery‟s emission of free radicals ….Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage.”The words “their production” refers to “the ATP-making machinery‟s emission of free radicals”. So, the damage is constrained because of limited emission of free radicals, or fewer free radicals are emitted.
+ in short supply = scarce
+ focus on = emphasize
Cambridge IELTS 6 Audio CDs Examination papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations
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